Ring Width Variation and Heartwood Development in <i>Quercus Faginea</i>
Keywords:<i>Quercus faginea</i>, Portuguese oak, heartwood, sapwood, ring width, wood quality
AbstractHigh-value exploitation of endogenous forest species may help in fighting the threat to their sustainability, as is the case for Quercus faginea Lam. (Portuguese oak) for which research is underway to determine the wood potential for high-quality products. Ring widths were measured in 20 trees in two sites in Portugal and within-tree heartwood and sapwood development was determined. The wood shows distinct ring porosity. The mean annual radial growth at dbh was 2.3 and 1.0 mm for the two sites, respectively. Ring width decreased with cambial age, ie 3.1 ± 1.2 mm in the first 10 rings to 1.3 ± 0.8 mm at around 40 yr (site 1). Ring width decreased axially from the tree base upward but the variation was small. The trees showed a relatively high proportion of heartwood, ie 60-70% heartwood for 20-25 cm wood diameters that decreased with height, and followed the stem profile. Heartwood diameter was modeled as a function of stem diameter, to be used for heartwood estimation in standing trees. Sapwood width was relatively constant. Overall the stem quality was found to be good for production of solid wood products regarding ring and heartwood features.
Bamber RK (1976) Heartwood, its function and formation. Wood Sci Technol 10(1):1-8.nCapelo J, Catry F (2007) A distribuição do carvalho-portuguěs emPortugal. Pages 83-94 in JS Silva (ed). Os carvalhais: um património a conservar. Liga para a Protecção da Natureza, Lisbon, Portugal [in Portuguese].nCarvalho A (1997) Madeiras portuguesas—Estrutura anatómica, propriedades, utilizações. Vol. II. Direcção-Geral das Florestas, Lisbon, Portugal. 415 pp [in Portuguese].nChauhan S, Donnelly R, Huang C, Nakada R, Yafang Y, Walker J (2006) Wood quality in context. Pages 121-155 in JCF Walker (ed). Primary wood processing—Principles and practice. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.nCorcuera L, Camarero JJ, Gil-Pelegrín E (2004) Effect of a severe drought on growth and wood anatomical properties of Quercus faginea. IAWA J 25(2):185-204.nCorcuera L, Camarero JJ, Sisó S, Gil-Pelegrín E (2006) Radial-growth and wood-anatomical changes in overaged Quercus pyrenaica coppice stands: Functional responses in a new Mediterranean landscape. Trees (Berl) 20(1):91-98.nCosta A, Pereira H, Oliveira A (2003) Variability of radial growth in cork-oak adult trees under cork production. For Ecol Mgmt 175(1):239-246.nFabião A, Oliveira A, Correia AV (2007) Conservação, regeneração e exploração dos carvalhais. Pages 67-81 in JS Silva (ed). Os carvalhais: um património a conservar. Liga para a Protecção da Natureza, Lisbon, Portugal [in Portuguese].nGominho J, Pereira H (2000) Variability of heartwood content in plantation growth Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Wood Fiber Sci 32(2):189-195.nGominho J, Pereira H (2005) The influence of tree spacing in heartwood content in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Wood Fiber Sci 37(4):582-590.nGourlay I, Pereira H (1998) The effect of bark stripping on wood production in cork oak (Quercus suber L.) and problems of growth ring definition. Pages 99-107 in H Pereira (ed). Cork oak and cork. Proc European Conference on Cork Oak and Cork. Centro de Estudos Florestais, Lisbon, Portugal.nGranier A, Anfodillo T, Sabatti M, Cochard H, Dreyer E, Tomasi M, Valentini R, Bréda N (1994) Axial and radial water flow in the trunks of oak trees: A quantitative and qualitative analysis. Tree Physiol 14(12):1383-1396.nHelińska-Raczkowska L, Fabisiak E (1991) Radial variation and growth rate in the length of the axial elements of sessile oak wood. IAWA Bull 12(3):257-262.nHillis WE (1987) Heartwood and tree exudates. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany. 268 pp.nHumar M, Fabčič B, Zupančič M, Pohleven F, Oven P (2008) Influence of xylem growth ring width and wood density on durability of oak heartwood. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 62(4):368-371.nKnapič S, Louzada JL, Leal S, Pereira H (2007) Radial variation of wood density components and ring width in cork oak trees. Ann For Sci 64(2):211-218.nKnapič S, Louzada JL, Pereira H (2011) Variation in wood density components within and between Quercus faginea trees. Can J For Res 41(6):1212-1219.nKnapič S, Pereira H (2005) Within-tree variation of heartwood and ring width in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). For Ecol Mgmt 210(1):81-89.nKnapič S, Tavares F, Pereira H (2006) Heartwood and sapwood variation in Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. trees in Portugal. Forestry: An International Journal of Forestry Research 79(4):371-380.nLeal S, Nunes E, Pereira H (2008) Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) wood growth and vessel characteristics in relation to climate and cork harvesting. Eur J For Res 127(1):33-41.nMaltez-Mouro S, García LV, Freitas H (2009) Infuence of forest structure and environmental variables on recruit survival and performance of two Mediterranean tree species (Quercus faginea Lam. and Q. suber L.). Eur J For Res 128(1):27-36.nManetti MC (2002) Tree ring growth by core sampling at the CONECOFOR permanent monitoring plots. The deciduous oak (Quercus cerris L.) type. Pages 55-61 in R Mosello, B Petriccione, and A Marchetto (eds). Long term ecological research in Italian forest ecosystems. J Limnol 61(Suppl 1).nMeadows JS, Hodges JD (2002) Sapwood area as an estimator of leaf area and foliar weight in cherrybark oak and green ash. Forest Sci 43(1):69-76.nMosedale JR, Charrier B, Janin G (1996) Genetic control of wood colour, density and heartwood ellagitannin concentration in European oak (Quercus petraea and Q. robur). Forestry 69(2):111-124.nNepveu G (1984) Contrôle héréditaire de la densité et de la rétractibilité du bois de trois espèces de Chěne (Quercus petraea Quercus robur et Quercus rubra). Silvae Genet 33(4-5):110-115 [in French].nOliveira AC, Fabião A, Gonçalves AC, Correia AV (2001) O carvalho-cerquinho em Portugal. ISA Press, Lisbon, Portugal. 53 pp [in Portuguese].nPaiva J (2007) O carvalho-portuguěs na história e na cultura. Pages 55-66 in JS Silva (ed). Os carvalhais: um património a conservar. Liga para a Protecção da Natureza, Lisbon, Portugal [in Portuguese].nPereira H, Graça J, Rodrigues JC (2003) Wood chemistry in relation to quality. Pages 53-83 in JR Barnett and G Jeronimidis (eds). Wood quality and its biological basis. CRC Press, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK.nPinto I, Pereira H, Usenius A (2004) Heartwood and sapwood development within Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stems. Trees (Berl) 18(3):284-294.nPinto I, Usenius A, Song T, Pereira H (2005) Sawing simulation of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stems for production of heartwood containing components. Forest Prod J 55(4):88-96.nSanz-Pérez V, Castro-Díez P, Valladares F (2007) Growth versus storage: Responses of Mediterranean oak seedlings to changes in nutrient and water availabilities. Ann For Sci 64(2):201-210.nVillar-Salvador P, Castro-Díez P, Pérez-Rontomé C, Montserrat-Martí G (1997) Stem xylem features in three Quercus (Fagaceae) species along a climatic gradient in NE Spain. Trees (Berl) 12(2):90-96.nZhang S-Y, Owoundi RE, Nepveu G, Mothe F, Dhôte J-F (1993) Modelling wood density in European oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) and simulating the silvicultural influence. Can J For Res 23:2587-2593.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.