A Rapid Method to Assess Viscoelastic and Mechanosorptive Creep in Wood
Keywords:Viscoelastic creep, mechanosorptive creep, dynamic mechanical analyzer, sugar maple, relative humidity, radial and tangential directions
AbstractThis study presents an alternative method to measure the viscoelastic and mechanosorptive creep of wood using a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). Measurements were made on sugar maple wood specimens in the radial and tangential directions in different RH conditions. Viscoelastic creep measurements showed that DMA can detect effects of time, RH, load level, and wood direction on wood creep. With the applied stress levels (5, 25, 35, and 45%), wood exhibited linear viscoelastic behavior. DMA also demonstrated its value in measuring mechanosorptive effect. The mechanosorptive effect was observed as RH changed during the loading period, resulting in very high deflections. In both viscoelastic and mechanosorptive creep measurements, creep proved to be greater in the tangential direction than in the radial direction. The results of this study demonstrated that a DMA can be a rapid and accurate tool to predict the time-dependent behavior of wood under load.
Ando K, Onda H (1999) Mechanism for deformation of wood as a honeycomb structure II: First buckling mechanism of cell walls under radial compression using the generalized cell model. J Wood Sci 45(3):250-253.nArmstrong LD (1972) Deformation of wood in compression during moisture movement. Wood Sci 5(2):81-86.nArmstrong LD, Christensen GN (1961) Influence of moisture changes on deformation of wood under stress. Nature 191(4791):869-870.nArmstrong LD, Kingston RST (1960) Effect of moisture changes on creep in wood. Nature 185(4718):862-863.nArmstrong LD, Kingston RST (1962) The effect of moisture content changes on the deformation of wood under stress. Aust J Appl Sci 13(4):257-276.nBach L (1965) Non-linear mechanical behavior of wood in longitudinal tension. PhD diss., State Univ. College of Forestry, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY. 228 pp.nBackman AC, Lindberg KAH (2001) Differences in wood material responses for radial and tangential direction as measured by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. J Mater Sci 36:3777-3783.nBazant ZP (1985) Constitutive equation of wood at variable humidity and temperature. Wood Sci Technol 19:159-177.nBecker H, Noack D (1968) Studies on the dynamic torsional viscoelasticity of wood. Wood Sci Technol 2:213-230.nBethe E (1969) Strength properties of construction wood stored under changing climates and mechanical load. Holz Roh Werkst 27(8):291-303.nBodig J, Jayne B (1982) Mechanics of wood and wood composites. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, NY.nBoutelje JB (1962) The relationship of structure to transverse anisotropy in wood with reference to shrinkage and elasticity. Holzforschung 16(2):33-46.nCaulfield DF (1994) Ester cross-linking to improve wet performance of paper using multifunctional carboxylic-acids, butanetetracarboxylic acid and citric-acid. Tappi J 77(3):205-215.nClouser WS (1959) Creep in small wood beams under constant bending load. Report 2150. USDA For Serv Forest Prod Lab, Madison, WI.nConners TE, Medvecz CJ (1992) Wood as a bimodular material. Wood Fiber Sci 24(4):413-423.nDrow JT (1945) Effect of moisture content on the compressive, bending, and shear strengths, and on the toughness of plywood. Report 1519. USDA For Serv Forest Prod Lab, Madison, WI.nEllwood EL (1954) Properties of American beech in tension and compression perpendicular to grain and their relation to drying. Bull 61 School of Forestry, Yale University, New Haven, CT. 82 pp.nEricksson L, Noren B (1965) The effect of moisture changes on the deformation of wood with tension in fibre direction. Holz Roh Werkst 23(5):201-209.nGerhards CC (1982) Effect of moisture content and temperature on the mechanical properties of wood: An analysis of immediate effects. Wood Fiber Sci 14(1): 4-36.nGerhards CC (1985) Time-dependent bending deflections of Douglas-fir 2 by 4's. Forest Prod J 35(4):18-26.nGerhards CC (1988) Effect of grade on load duration of Douglas-fir lumber in bending. Wood Fiber Sci 20(1):146-161.nGerhards CC (1991) Bending creep and load duration of Douglas-fir 2 by 4s under constant load. Wood Fiber Sci 23(3):384-409.nGibson E (1965) Creep of wood: Role of water and effect of a changing moisture content. Nature 206:213-215.nGnanaharan R, Haygreen J (1979) Comparison of the behavior of a basswood waferboard to that of solid wood. Wood Fiber Sci 11(3):155-170.nGrossman PUA (1976) Requirements for a model that exhibits mechano-sorptive behavior. Wood Sci Technol 10:163-168.nHabeger CC, Coffin DW (2000) The role of stress concentrations in accelerated creep and sorption-induced physical aging. J Pulp Paper Sci 26:145-157.nHanhijarvi A (1995) Deformation kinetics based rheological model for the time-dependent and moisture induced deformation of wood. Wood Sci Technol 29:191-195.nHaslach HW (1994) The mechanics of moisture acetated tensile creep in paper. Tappi 77(10):179-186.nHaslach HW (2000) The moisture and rate-dependent mechanical properties of paper: A review. Mech Time-Depend Mater 4:169-210.nHunt DG (1986) The mechano-sorptive creep susceptibility of two softwoods and its relation to some other materials properties. J Mater Sci 21:2088-2096.nJames WL (1964) Vibration and static strength and elastic properties of clear Douglas-fir at various levels of moisture content. Forest Prod J 14(9):409-413.nKadita S, Yamada T, Suzuki M, Komatsu K (1961) Studies on the rheological properties of wood. I. Effect of moisture content on dynamic Young's modulus of wood. II. Effect of heat-treating condition on the hygroscopicity and dynamic Young's modulus of wood. Journal of Japanese Wood Research Society 7(1):29-38.nKang W, Park BD (2003) Analytical modeling of rheological post buckling behavior of wood-based composite panels under cyclic hygro-loading. Wood Fiber Sci 35(3): 409-420.nKeith CT (1972) The mechanical behavior of wood in longitudinal compression. Wood Sci 4:234-244.nKelley S, Rials T, Glasser W (1987) Relaxation behavior of the amorphous components of wood. J Mater Sci 22(6): 617-624.nKingston RST, Armstrong LD (1951) Creep in initially green wooden beams. Aust J Appl Sci 2(2):306-325.nKollmann F (1961) Rheologie und strukturfestigkeit von Holz. Holz Roh Werkst 19(3):73-80.nLe Govic C, Felix B, Benzaim A, Rouger F (1989) Creep behavior of wood as a function of temperature: Experimental study, modelling and consequences for design codes. Pages 273-277 in Proc Second Pacific Timber Engineering Conference, 28-31 August 1989, University of Auckland, New Zealand.nLeont'ev NL (1960) The strength of wood at varying moisture content. Derev Prom 10:17-18.nMartensson A (1994) Mechano-sorptive effect in wooden material. Wood Sci Technol 28(6):437-449.nMoutee M, Fortin Y, Laghdir A, Fafard M (2010) Cantilever experimental setup for rheological parameter identification in relation to wood drying. Wood Sci Technol 44:31-49.nNavi P, Heger F (2005) Comportement thermohydromécanique du bois. Presses Polytechniques et universitaires romandes, Lausanne, Switzerland.nNielsen LF (1984) Power law creep as related to relaxation elasticity, damping, rheological spectra, and creep recovery—With special reference to wood. IUFRO Timber Engineering Group Meeting, Xalapa, Mexico.nNordon P (1962) Some torsional properties of wood fibers. Textile Res J 32:560-568.nObataya E, Norimoto M, Gril J (1998) The effects of adsorbed water on dynamic mechanical properties of wood. Polymer (Guildf) 39(14):3059-3064.nOstman BAL (1985) Wood tensile strength at temperatures and moisture contents simulating fire conditions. Wood Sci Technol 19:103-116.nPadanyi ZV (1991) Mechano-sorptive effects and accelerated creep in paper. Pages 397-411 in International Paper Physics Conference, 22-26 September 1991, Kona, HI. TAPPI Press, Atlanta, GA.nPentoney RE, Davidson RW (1962) Rheology and the study of wood. Forest Prod J 12(5):243-248.nPerré P, Keller R (1994) La prédiction des propriétés macroscopiques du matériau bois par sa structure anatomique: Besoin ou moyen de caractériser la paroi? J Trace Microprobe T 12(4):277-287.nPerré P, Olek W (2007) From fundamental to practice: The interaction chain. In: Perré, P., ed. Fundamentals of wood drying. A. R.BO.LOR; Nancy, France. pp. 1-19.nPickett G (1942) The effect of change in moisture-content on the creep of concrete under a sustained load. J Am Concr Inst 13(4):333-355.nPlacent V (2006) Conception et exploitation d'un dispositif expérimental innovant pour la caractérisation du comportement viscoélastique et de la dégradation thermique du bois dans des conditions sévères. Dissertation de thèse en sciences du bois, Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy, France-I. 331 pp.nRanta Maunus A (1975) The viscoelasticity of wood at varying moisture content. Wood Sci Technol 9:189-205.nRice RW, Youngs RL (1990) The mechanism and development of creep during drying of red oak. Holz Roh Werkst 48(2):73-79.nSAS Institute Inc (2008) SAS/STAT® 9.2 user's guide. Cary, NC.nSchaffer EL (1972) Modeling the creep of wood in a changing moisture environment. Wood Fiber Sci 3:232-235.nSchneider A (1971) Investigations on the influence of heat treatments with a range of temperatures from 100 to 200 ° on the modulus of elasticity, maximum crushing strength, and impact work of pine sapwood and beechwood. Holz Roh Werkst 29(11):431-440.nSchniewind AP (1968) Recent progress in the study of the rheology of wood. Wood Sci Technol 2:188-206.nSegovia F, Blanchet P, Laghdir A, Cloutier A (2013) Mechanical behavior of sugar maple in cantilever bending under constant and variable relative humidity. International Wood Products Journal. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/iwp/pre-prints/2042645312Y.0000000024 (1 September 2013). http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/iwp/pre-prints/2042645312Y.0000000024'>http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/iwp/pre-prints/2042645312Y.0000000024nSelway JW, Kirkpatrick J (1992) The assessment of high humidity corrugated box performance. Pages 31-47 in Proc cyclic humidity effects on paperboard packaging. TL Laufenberg and CH Leake (eds). 14-15 September 1992, Madison, WI. FPL, Madison, WI.nSoremark C, Fellers CN (1993) Mechano-sorptive creep and hygroexpansion of corrugated board in bending. J Pulp Paper Sci 19:J19-J26.nSulzberger PH (1953) The effect of temperature on the strength of wood, plywood and glue joints. Aeronaut. Res. Consultative Com. Rep. ACA-46. Melbourne, Australia.nSzabo T, Ifju G (1970) Influence of stress on creep and moisture distribution in wooden beams under sorption conditions. Wood Sci 2(3):159-167.nThelandersson S, Morén T (1992) Tensile stresses and cracking in drying timber. Report TVBK-3029. Department of Structural Engineering, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden.nVan Der Put TACM (1989) Deformation and damage processes in wood. Delft University Press, Delft, The Netherlands. 154 pp.nWang JZ, Dillard DA, Ward TC (1992) Temperature and stress effects in the creep of aramid fibers under transient moisture conditions and discussions on the mechanisms. J Polym Sci Pol Phys 30:1391-1400.nWilson TRC (1932) Strength-moisture relations for wood. Tech Bull 282. USDA, Washington, DC.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.