Compression of Wood with Superimposed Small Sinusoidal Oscillations: Part I. Room Temperature
Keywords:Compression, compression damage, fiber damage, permanent strain, pulp viscosity, wood
The changes occurring in wood when it is subjected to compression straining in well-defined directions have been studied. The straining has also included dynamic (oscillations at frequencies up to 84 Hz.
The changes occurring in the wood have been determined by measurement of the resulting permanent strain of the wood specimens. Fiber damage has been evaluated by measuring the intrinsic viscosity of the pulp after a standardized sulfite delignification. Some microscopic examinations were also carried out.
The compressions were carried out either parallel to or perpendicular to the gram on air-dry or water-saturated specimens. The energy consumption during the compression treatments has also been considered.
Bienfait, J. L. 1926. Relation of the manner of failure to the structure of wood under compression parallel to the grain. J. Agr. Res. 33:183-194.nBildt, O. 1938. Drum barking in the sulfite industry (in Swedish). Svensk Papperstid. 41(8):261-264.nDinwoodie, J. M. 1968. Failure in timber: Part 1. Microscopic changes in cell wall structure associated with compression failure. J. Inst. Wood Sci. 21:37-53.nFerry, J. D. 1970. Viscoelastic properties of polymers, 2nd ed. Wiley, New York.nFrey-Wyssling, A. 1938. Die mikroskopische Holzstruktur bei technischer überbeanspruchung. Verg. f.d. Materialp. d. Teknik. No. 36, Zürich.nFrey-Wyssling, A. 1953, Über den Feinbau der Stauchlinien in überbeanspruchtem Holz. Holz Roh- Werkst. 11(7):283-288.nW. Gillwald 1961. Beitrag zur Bestimmung der Formänderung von holz unter schwingender Beanspruchung. Holz Roh- Werkst. 19(3):86-92.nGoldsmith, V., and P.U.A, Grossman. 1967. The effect of frequency of vibration on the viscoelastic properties of wood. J. Inst. Wood Sci. 19:44-53.nGreen, H., and F. H. Yorston. 1539. The suitability of wood for acid pulping. Pulp Paper Mag. Can. 40(4):244-250.nGreen, H., and F. H. Yorston. 1940. The effect of chipping on the suitability of wood for sulphite pulping. Pulp Paper Mag. Can. 41(2):123-126.nGrögaard, L. 1946. The influence of the accessible surface of the wood upon the quality of the pulp (in Norwegian; German and English summaries). Svensk Papperstid. 49(12):271-277.nHartler, N. 1963. The effect of chip damage on the fibre bonding of acid bisulphite paper pulps. Svensk Papperstid. 66(10):412-417.nHartler, N. 1963. The effect of wood compression on acid bisulphite pulps from springwood and sum-merwood. Svensk Papperstid. 66(14):526-532.nHartler, N. 1969. Misaligned zones in cellulosic fibres. Survey. Norsk Skogind. 23(4):114-120.nHartler, N. and Lémon. 1969. Misaligned zones in cellulosic fibres. Their formation during compression of the wood. Norsk Skogind. 23(5):151-158.nHartler, N. G. Kull, and L. Stockman. 1963. The effect of chip damage on the fibre strength of acid bisulphite paper pulps. Svensk Papperstid. 66(8):309-311.nHöglund, H., U. Sohlin, and G. Tistad. 1976. Physical properties of wood in relation to chip refining. Tappi 59(6);144-147.nKeith, C. T. 1971. The anatomy of compression failure in relation to creep-inducing stresses. Wood Sci. 4(2):71-82.nKollmann, F. 1963. Phenomena of fracture in wood. Holzforsch. 17(3):65-71.nKollmann, F. and H. Krech. 1960. Dynamische Messung der elastischen Holzeigenschaften und der Dämplung. Holz Roh- Werkst. 18(2):41-54.nPentoney, R. E., and R. W. Davidson. 1962. Rheology and the study of wood For. Prod. J. 12(5):243-248.nRobinson, W. 1920. The microscopical features of mechanical strains in timber and the bearing ot these on the structure of the cell wall in plants. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 210 B: 49-82.nRose, G. 1965. Das mechanische Verhalten des Kiefernholzes bei dynamischer Dauerbeanspruchung in Abhängigkeit von Belastungstart, Belastungsgrösse, Feuchtigkeit und Temperatur. Holz Roh Werkst. 23(7):271-284.nRys, L., G. Aron, and W. Overbaeck. 1952. The influence of chipping on the properties of Paraná pine sulphite pulp. Tappi 35(4):147-156.nSalmén, L. 1982. Temperature and water induced softening behaviour of wood fiber based materials. Doctoral dissertation, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.nScurfield, G., S. R. Silva, and M. B. Wold. 1972. Failure of wood under load applied parallel to grain: A study using scanning electron microscopy. Micron 3:160-184.nSliker, A. 1973. Young's modulus parallel to the grain in wood as a function of strain rate, stress level and mode of loading. Wood Fiber 4(4):325-333.nSliker, A. 1975. Young's modulus of wood as affected by strain rate, grain angle and stress level. Wood Sci. 7(3):223-231.nStone, J. E., and L. F. Nickerson. 1958. The pulping of mechanically treated wood. I. Crushed softwoods. Pulp Paper Mag. Can. 59(6):165-173.nStone, J. E., and L. F. Nickerson. 1961. The pulping of mechanically treated wood. II. Influence of extent of deformation. Pulp Paper Mag. Can. 62(6):T317-326.nSugiyama, H. 1967. On the effect of the loading time on the strength properties of wood. Wood Sci. Technol. 1(4):289-303.nThunell, B. 1941. Über die Elastizität schwedischen Kiefernholzes. Holz Roh- Werkst. 4(1):15-18.nWardrop, A. B., and F. W. Addo-Ashong. 1963. The anatomy and fine structure of wood in relation to its mechanical failure. Commonw. Austr. D.F.P., No. 560, Melbourne.nWinter, R. 1984. Compression of wood with superimposed small oscillations at high temperature. (To be published.)nWinter, R. P. J. Mjöberg, and N. Hartler. 1984. Fiber damage in wood pulps disintegrated high temperatures. Cellulose Chem. Technol. 18(5):519-533.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.