TECHNICAL NOTE: Effects of Polyurethane Resin on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Wood Fiber/Palm Kernel Shell Composite Boards


  • Faizatul Azwa Zamri
  • Walter Charles Primus
  • Abdul Halim Shaari
  • Aaliyawani Ezzerin Sinin


This article investigates the effect of polyurethan (PU) resin as a binding agend for wood fiber (WF)_ and palm kernel shell (PKS) composite boardl in terms of physical and mechanical properties. 


 A series of fiberboard samples consisting of WF/PKS at a ratio of 85/15 with different percentage of PU adhesive (40%, 50% and 60%) have been fabricated. The results showed that flexural modulus, flexural strength, tensile modulus, tensile strength and hardness of the boards were increased with the increase of PU adhesive percentage. The effects of the binder were also explained in terms of porosity and surface morphology. Based on the results, the board met the Japanese Industrial Standard A 5905 for type 5 and can be classified as medium density fibreboard, which could potentially be used in the decoration application. Replacing formaldehyde with the PU resin as a binding agent in fiberboard composites is one way to avoiding health issues.



Akgul M, Camlibel O (2008) Manufacture of medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels from rhododendron (R. Ponticum L.) biomass. Build Environ 4:438-443.

Ali I, Jayaraman K, Bhattacharyy D (2014) Effects of resin and moisture content on the properties of medium density fiberboards made from kenaf bast fibers. Ind Crops Prod 52:191-198.

Dagwa IM, Ibhadode AO (2008) Some physical and mechanical properties of palm kernel shell (PKS). Botsw J Technol 17(2):10-16.

Davies RM (2012) Physical and mechanical properties of palm fruit, kernel and nut. J Agric Technol 8(7): 2147-2156.

Edmund CO, Christopher MS, Pascal DK (2014) Characterization of palm kernel shell for materials reinforcement and water treatment. J Chem Eng Mater Sci 5(1):1-6.

El-Kassas AM, Mourad AHI (2013) Novel fibers preparation technique for manufacturing of rice straw based fiberboards and their characterization. Mater Des 50:757-765.

Halvarsson S, Edlund H, Norgren M (2008) Properties of medium density fiberboard (MDF) based on wheat straw and melamine modified urea formaldehyde (UMF) resin. Ind Crops Prod 28:37-46.

Jain KP, Shit SC, Jain SK (2013) Evaluate of mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene–palm kernel nut shell powder composites for green roof technology. J Inf Knowl Res Mech Eng 2(2):456-459.

Japanese Standard, JIS A 5905 (2003) Fiberboards. Japanese Industrial Standard Committee, Tokyo, Japan

Krzysztof W, Arnold W, Leszek D (2013) Effects of density and resin content on mechanical properties of particleboards with the core layer made from willow Salix viminalis. Ann WULS SGGW For and Wood Technol 84:284-287.

Lee S, Shupe TF, Hse CY (2006) Mechanical and physical properties of agro-based fiberboard. Holz-als-Roh-und-Werkstoff 64:74-79.

Mahzan S, Ahmad AAM, Ghazali MI, Arsat N, Hatta MNM, Rasool MS (2011) Mechanical properties of medium density fiberboard composites material using recycled rubber and coconut coir. Int J Integr Eng 2(1):21-27.

Olumuyiwa AJ, Isaac TS, Adewunmi OA, Ololade AI (2012) Effects of palm kernel shell on the microstructure and mechanical properties of recycled polyethylene/palm kernel shell particulate composites. J Miner Mater Charact Eng 11:825-831.

O’Neill F, Condon F, McGloughlin T, Lenehan B, Coffey C, Walsh M (2012) Validity of synthetic bone as a substitute for osteoporotic cadaveric femoral heads in mechanical testing: A biometrical study. Bone Joint Res 1(4):50-55.

Ong HL, Toh GY, Azza NANN, Safwan MM, Villagracia AR, Chin KM, Abdulah MMAB (2016) Utilization of modified palm kernel shell for biocomposites production. Key Eng Mater 700:60-69.

Park HJ, Oh SW, Wen MY (2012) Manufacture and properties of Miscanthus-wood particle composite boards. J Wood Sci 58:459-464.

“Polyurethane” (August 2019).

Salmah H, Romisuhani A, Akmal H (2011) Properties of low-density polyethylene/palm kernel shell composites: Effect of polyethylene co-acrylic acid. J Thermoplast Compos Mater 26(1):3-15.

Shehu U, Aponbiede O, Ause T, Obiodunukwe EF (2014) Effects of particle size on the properties of polyester/palm kernel shell (PKS) particulate composites. J Mater EnvironSci 5(2):366-373.

Ye XP, Julson J, Kuo M, Womac A, Myers D (2007)

Properties of medium density fiberboards made from renewable

biomass. Biores Technol 98:1077-1084.





Technical Notes