EFFECT OF CHIPPING EDGE INCLINATION ANGLE ON SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PULP CHIPS PRODUCED BY A CHIPPER-CANTER
Keywords:oblique cutting, chipper-canter, chipping edge inclination angle, chip formation, chip thickness
AbstractThe effect of oblique cutting on the chipper-canter wood chipping mechanism was studied. A bent knife was modified to obtain inclination angles (IA) of 30° and 50° between the chipping edge and the log feeding direction. The standard knife had an IA of 40°. These three knives were tested on 15 logs each, under frozen (-10°C) and unfrozen conditions. Chip dimensions were assessed by thickness (Domtar distribution) and width/length (Williams distribution). Characteristics and physical properties of the log knots were also measured. Experiments revealed that IA had a significant effect on chip formation mechanism. The IA affected the chipping edge entering the log and the form of the wood slice that was transforming into chips. These changes provoked variations in chip size. An IA of 30° produced wider chips, mostly in the first half of the cut, shaped as an elongated parallelepiped that resulted from a tangential, oblique and radial splitting in a single chip. The shape of chips obtained with IAs of 40° and 50° was more like an upright parallelepiped that was detached mostly by radial and oblique splitting. At the beginning and at the end of the cut, chips were produced by tangential splitting. As a result, for a same chip length of 23 mm, weighted mean chip thickness (WCT) decreased almost 1 mm when IA decreased from 50° to 30°. The knot ratio (total knot area / cant total area) affected both chip size distributions and WCT. Chipping frozen wood at -10°C reduced the chip thickness by 0.55 mm with respect to unfrozen wood. The amount of fines and pin chips also increased nearly two times compared to unfrozen wood. The amount of the Williams accepts chip class increased by 6% when IA decreased from 50° to 30° and by 8% when chipping unfrozen wood compared to frozen wood.
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