• Rongrong Li Beijing Forestry University http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0485-3188
  • Wei Xu Nanjing Forestry University
  • Chuangui Wang Anhui Agriculture University
  • Shuangbao Zhang Beijing Forestry University
  • Wei Song Beijing Forestry University


Liquefaction, Moso bamboo, Response surface methodology, Residue content


Bamboo liquefaction is a key process during bamboo high-value utilization, such as bamboobased nano-carbon fiber manufacturing. Liquefaction parameters have direct effects on the performance of final products. The impact of mass ratio of phenol/bamboo (P/B) powder, temperature, and liquefaction time during moso bamboo liquefaction was studied. All these parameters were studied to perform experiments based on response surface methodology (RSM). Residue content was calculated to evaluate the efficiency of moso bamboo liquefaction. Mathematical models were developed to establish the relationship between the liquefaction parameters and residue content. The results showed that within certain limits the residue content  decreased with the increase of P/B and temperature; however, a further increase of P/B and temperature caused the residue content to increase. In the selected range of liquefaction time in this study, the residue content decreased with the increase of liquefaction time. The optimized combination of liquefaction parameters was 4.5, 163°C, and 46 min for P/B, temperature, and liquefaction time, respectively. The optimized result of residue content from RSM was 7.41934E-008 (%), which meant the bamboo almost completely liquefied. Because of the reasonable error of experiment, the optimized result of residue content from the confirmation experiment was 0.06%.



Aouici H, Yallese MA, Belbah A, Ameur MF, Elbah M

(2013) Experimental investigation of cutting parameters

influence on surface roughness and cutting forces in hard

turning of X38CrMoV5-1 with CBN tool. Sadhana Acad

Proc Eng Sci 38(3):429-445.

Barnes MC, Oltvoort J, Kersten SRA, Lange JP (2017) Wood

liquefaction: Role of solvent. Ind Eng Chem Res 56(3):


Chu C, Sun F, Zheng J, Wu J (2016) Preparation technology

of poplar wood powder and its resin. J For Eng 1(5):95-100

(in Chinese).

Fu S, Cheng S, Zhao G (2008) Kinetics of Moso bamboo

liquefaction with different catalysts. J Beijing For Univ

(6):119-123 (in Chinese).

GB/T 2677.8 (1994) Fibrous raw material—Determination

of acid-insoluble lignin. Standardization Administration of

China, Beijing, China.

GB/T 2677.10 (1995) Fibrous raw material—Determination

of holocellulose. Standardization Administration of China,

Beijing, China.

GB/T 742 (2008) Fibrous raw material, pulp, paper and

board—Determination of ash. Standardization Administration

of China, Beijing, China.

Janiszewska D, Frackowiak I, Bielejewska N (2016) Application

of selected agents for wood liquefaction and

some properties of particleboards produced with the use of

liquefied wood. Drewno 59(197):223-230.

Jiao Z, Zhang Q, Li J, Jie S (2008) Study on the technology of

giant reed liquefaction in phenol. J Anhui Agric Sci

(12):4825-4827 (in Chinese).

Li R, Ekevad M, Guo X, Cao P, Wang J, Chen Q, Xue H

(2015d) Pressure, feed rate, and abrasive mass flow rate

influence on surface roughness for recombinant bamboo

abrasive water jet cutting. BioResources 10(2):1998-2008.

Li R, Ekevad M, Guo X, Ding J, Cao P (2015c) Effect of

pressure, feed rate, and abrasive mass flow rate on water jet

cutting efficiency when cutting recombinant bamboo.

BioResources 10(1):499-509.

Li R, Guo X, Cao P, Wang X (2016) Optimization of laser

cutting parameters for recombinant bamboo based on response surface methodology. Wood Res 61(2):275-285.

Li R, Guo X, Ekevad M, Marklund B, Cao P (2015b) Investigation of glueline shear strength of pine wood bonded

with PVAc by response surface methodology. Bio-

Resources 10(3):3831-3838.

Lu Z, Wu Z, Fan L, Zhang H, Liao Y, Zheng D, Wang S

(2016) Rapid and solvent-saving liquefaction of woody

biomass using microwave-ultrasonic assisted technology.

Biores Technol 199:423-426.

Li G, Hse C, Qin T (2015a) Wood liquefaction with phenol

by microwave heating and FTIR evaluation. J For Res

(4):1043-1048 (in Chinese).

Ma X, Zhao G (2008) Structure and performance of fibers

prepared from liquefied wood in phenol. Fibers Polym


Ma X, Zhao G (2011) Variations in the microstructure of

carbon fibers prepared from liquefied wood during carbonization. J Appl Polym Sci 121(6):3525-3530.

Ma X, Liu X, Yu L, Tian M (2014) Microstructure and

adsorption property of bamboo-based activated carbon

fibers prepared by liquefaction and curing. Wood Fiber Sci


Wu J, Zheng J, Chu C, Sun F (2016) Physical and mechanical

properties of sandwich composite using liquefied poplar

wood foam as core board. J For Eng 1(6):114-118 (in


Xie J, Hse C, Shupe T, Hu T (2016) Influence of solvent type

on microwave-assisted liquefaction of bamboo. Eur J

Wood Wood Prod 74(2):249-254.

Ye J, Liu P, Li J, Xia H, Wang K, Jiang J (2017) Acidcatalytic

liquefaction of bamboo with water/n-butanol and product

separation. J For Eng 2(02):52-57 (in Chinese).

Zhang J, Du M, Wang J, Huang S (2009) Liquefaction

technology optimization of bamboo powder and structure

characterization of reaction product. J Cellul Sci Technol


Zhang W, Fang J, Liu L, Wang H (2015) Effects of isocyanate

content on properties of liquefied bamboo foam.

J For Eng 29(05):85-88 (in Chinese).

Zhou R, Zhou R, Wang S, Lan Z, Zhang X, Yin Y, Tu S,

Yang S, Ye L (2016) Fast liquefaction of bamboo shoot

shell with liquid-phase microplasma assisted technology.

Biores Technol 218:1275-1278.





Research Contributions