• Ayfer Akgul Mississippi State University
  • Ali Akgul
  • Juliet D. Tang
  • Susan V. Diehl


, Copper-tolerance, brown-rot decay, Fibroporia radiculosa, ACQ (alkaline copper quat), gene expression.


Copper-tolerant brown-rot fungi are able to degrade wood treated with copper or copper-based wood preservatives. This research used quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to explore what genes of the brown-rot fungus, Fibroporia radiculosa, were expressed when the fungus was overcoming the wood preservatives and decaying the wood. Aryl alcohol oxidase, catalase, oxalate decarboxylase 2, and copper resistance P-type ATPase pump had higher expression on alkaline copper quat type D treated wood compared with week 1. In addition, two genes had high expression at week 5; glycoside hydrolase 5 and glycoside hydrolase 10 when wood strength loss was around 50%. Glyoxylate dehydrogenase had high expression until week 8. This gene might be involved in the production of oxalate. Laccase, oxalate decarboxylase 1 and isocitrate lyase were not differentially expressed, suggesting that these genes were not involved in the decay process of alkaline copper quat-treated wood. These results are important to understand the genes that are involved in the mechanism of copper tolerance and wood decay in F. radiculosa.



Akgul A (2016) Gene expression profiling of wood decay

fungus Fibroporia radiculosa grown on different organic

and copper based preservatives. Ph.D. Dissertation, Mississippi State University, p. 224.

Arango R, Lebow P, Green F III (2009) Correlation between

oxalic acid production and tolerance of Tyromyces palustris

strain TYP-6137 to N0,N-naphthaloylhydroxamine.

Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 63:46-51.

Arantes V, Jellison J, Goodell B (2012) Peculiarities of

brown-rot fungi and biochemical Fenton reaction with

regard to their potential as a model for bioprocessing

biomass. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 94:323-338.

American Wood Protection Association (AWPA) (2012)

E22-12 Standard accelerated laboratory method for

testing the efficacy of preservatives against wood decay

fungi using compression strength. Book of Standards.

American Wood Protection Association, Birmingham,

AL. 8 pp.

American Wood Protection Association (AWPA) (2014b)

P29-14 Standard for alkaline copper quat type D (ACQ-D).

Book of Standards. American Wood-Preservers Association,

Birmingham, AL.

Clausen C, Green F III, Kirker GT, Lebow S (2014) Wood

protection research council: Research priorities 2013.

General technical report FPL-GTR-232. U.S. Department

of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory,

Madison, WI. 11 pp.

Chelikani P, Fita I, Loewen PC (2004) Diversity of structures

and properties among catalases. Cell Mol Life Sci 61(2):


Dutton MV, Evans CS (1996) Oxalate production by fungi:

Its role in pathogenicity and ecology in the soil environment.

Can J Microbiol 42:881-895.

Eriksson K-EL, Blanchette RA, Ander P (1990) Microbial

and enzymatic degradation of wood and wood components.

Springer Verlag Publishers, Berlin. 407 pp.

Farmer VC, Henderson MEK, Russell JD (1960) Aromaticalcohol-oxidase activity in the growth medium of Polystictus versicolor. Biochem J 74(2):257-262.

Freeman M, McIntyre C (2008) A comprehensive review of

copper-based wood preservatives with a focus on new

micronized or dispersed copper systems. Forest Products

Society 58:6-27.

Gadd GM (1993) Interactions of fungi with toxic metals.

New Phytol 124:25-60.

Goodell B, Liu J, Daniel G, Paszczynski A, Fekete F,

Krishnamurthy JL, Xu G (1997) Low molecular weight

chelators and phenolic compounds isolated from wood

decay fungi and their role in the fungal biodegradation of

wood. J Biotechnol 53:133-162.

Green F III, Clausen CA (2003) Copper tolerance of brownrot

fungi: Time course of oxalic acid production. Int Biodeterior

Biodegradation 51:145-149.

Hammel KE, Kapich AN, Jensen KA, Ryan ZC (2002)

Reactive oxygen species as agents of wood decay by fungi.

Enzyme Microb Technol 30:445-453.

Hastrup ACS, Green F III, Clausen C, Jensen B (2005)

Tolerance of Serpula lacrymans to copper-based wood

preservatives. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 56:173-177.

Hastrup ACS, Jensen B, Clausen C, Green F III (2006) The

effect of CaCl2 on growth rate, wood decay and oxalic acid

accumulation in Serpula lacrymans and related brown-rot

fungi. Holzforschung 60:339-345.

Hayaishi O, Jakoby WB, Ohmura E (1956) Enzymatic decarboxylation of oxalic acid. J Biol Chem 222(1):435-446.

Irbe I, Andersone I, Andersons B, Chirkova J (2001) Use of

C NMR, sorption and chemical analyses for characteristics

of brown-rotted Scots pine. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation


Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD (2001) Analysis of relative gene

expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the

ΔΔCT method. Methods 25:402-408.

Martinez D, Challacombe J, Morgenstern I, Hibbett D,

Schmoll M, Kubicek CP, Ferreira P, Ruiz-Duenas FJ,

Martinez AT, Kersten P (2009) Genome, transcriptome,

and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus Postia

placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose

conversion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:1954-1959.

Munir E, Yoon JJ, Tokimatsu T, Hattori T, Shimada M

(2001) A physiological role for oxalic acid biosynthesis in

the wood-rotting basidiomycete Fomitopsis palustris. Proc

Natl Acad Sci USA 98:11126-11130.

Ohno KM, Clausen CA, Green F, Diehl SV (2015) Insights

into the mechanism of copper-tolerance in Fibroporia

radiculosa: The biosynthesis of oxalate. Int Biodeterior

Biodegradation 105:90-96.

Perez J, Muñoz-Dorado J, Rubia De La T (2002) Biodegradation

and biological treatments of cellulose, hemicellulose

and lignin: An overview. Int Microbiol 5:53.

Schilling JS, Jellison J (2006) Metal accumulation without

enhanced oxalate secretion in wood degraded by brown rot

fungi. Appl Environ Microbiol 72(8):5662-5665.

Schultz TP, Nicholas DD (2008) Introduction to developing

wood preservative systems and molds in homes. ACS

Symposium series, American Chemical Society, Washington,

DC, 2008.

Tang JD, Parker LA, Perkins AD, Sonstegard TS, Schroeder SG,

Nicholas DD, Diehl SV (2013) Gene expression analysis of

copper tolerance and wood decay in the brown rot fungus

Fibroporia radiculosa.Appl EnvironMicrobiol 79:1523-1533.

Tang JD, Perkins AD, Sonstegard TS, Schroeder SG, Burgess

SC, Diehl SV (2012) Short-read sequencing for genomic

analysis of the brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa.

Appl Environ Microbiol 78:2272-2281.

Vesentini D, Dickinson DJ, Murphy RJ (2005) The production

of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) in

two wood-rotting basidiomycetes is affected by growth

conditions. Mycologia 97(6):1163-1170.

Wei D, Houtman CJ, Kapich AN, Hunt CG, Cullen D,

Hammel KE (2010) Laccase and its role in production of

extracellular reactive oxygen species during wood decay

by the brown rot basidiomycete Postia placenta. Appl

Environ Microbiol 76:2091-2097.

Woodward BM, DeGroot RC (1999) Tolerance of Wolfiporia

cocos isolates to copper in agar media. Forest Prod J 49:


Wymelenberg AV, Gaskell J, Mozuch M, Sabat G, Ralph J,

Skyba O, Mansfield SD, Blanchette RA, Martinez D,

Grigoriev I, Kersten PJ (2010) Comparative transcriptome

and secretome analysis of wood decay fungi Postia placenta

and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Appl Environ

Microbiol 76:3599-3610.

Yelle DJ, Ralph J, Lu F, Hammel KE (2008) Evidence for

cleavage of lignin by a brown rot basidiomycete. Environ

Microbiol 10(7):1844-1849.





Research Contributions