Analysis of Adhesive Penetration into Wood using Nano-X-ray Computed Tomography


  • Paige McKinley Oregon State University
  • Frederick A. Kamke Oregon State University
  • Arijit Sinha Oregon State University
  • Vincent De Andrade Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory
  • Joseph E. Jakes Forest Products Laboratory


nano-X-ray computed tomography, X-ray fluorescence microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, adhesive, cell wall penetration


This study focused on the penetration of adhesive into cell lumens and cell walls. Douglas-fir samples containing an iodinated phenol-formaldehyde adhesive were analyzed using nano-X-ray computed tomography (XCT), X-ray fluorescence microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to observe adhesive penetration in cell walls. A gradient of penetration was observed within the cell wall structure. In addition, these nano-XCT datasets were indexed to previous micro-XCT datasets, which gave the ability to link the nanoscale cell wall penetration to microscale penetration in to the porous network of cell lumens.


Author Biographies

Paige McKinley, Oregon State University

Masters Candidate, Department of Wood Science and Engineering, College of Forestry, Oregon State University

Frederick A. Kamke, Oregon State University


Department of Wood Science & Engineering

Oregon State University

Arijit Sinha, Oregon State University

Assistant Professor

Department of Wood Science & Engineering

Oregon State University

Vincent De Andrade, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory

Beamline Scientist, X-ray Division

Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory

Joseph E. Jakes, Forest Products Laboratory

Research Materials Engineer

Forest Biopolymers Science and Engineering

USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory


Bin B, Rukai Z, Songtao W, Wenjing Y, Gelb J, Gu A,

Xiangxiang Z, Ling S (2013) Multi-scale method of

nano(micro)-CT study on microscopic pore structure of

tight sandstone of Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin.

Petrol Explor Dev 40(3):354-358.

Cetinbas FC, Ahluwalia RK, Kariuki N, De Andrade V,

Fongalland D, Smith L, Sharman J, Ferreira P, Rasouli S,

Myers DJ (2017) Hybrid approach combining multiple

characterization techniques and simulations for microstructural

analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

electrodes. J Power Sources 344:62-73.

De Andrade V, Deriy A, Wojcik MJ, G¨ursoy D, Shu D,

Fezzaa K, De Carlo F (2016) Nanoscale 3D imaging at the

advanced photon source. SPIE Newsroom May 12, 2016.

doi: 10.1117/2.1201604.006461.

De Carlo F, Gursoy D, Marone F, Rivers M, Parkinson YD,

Khan F, Schwarz N, Vine DJ, Vogt S, Gleber SC, Narayanan

S, Newville M, Lanzirotti T, Sun Y, Hong YP, Jacobsen C

(2014) Scientific data exchange: A schema for hdf5-based

storage of raw and analyzed data. J Synchrotron Radiat 21(6):


Evans PD, Morrison O, Senden TJ, Vollmer S, Roberts RJ,

Limaye A, Arns CH, Averdunk H, Lowe A, Knackstedt

MA (2010) Visualization and numerical analysis of adhesive

distribution in particleboard using X-ray microcomputed

tomography. Int J Adhes Adhes 30:754-762.

Gindl W (2001) SEM and UV-microscopic investigation of

glue lines in Parallam PSL. Holz Roh Werkst 59:211-214.

GindlW,Dessipri E,Wimmer R (2002) UsingUV-microscopy

to study diffusion of melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin in

cell walls of spruce wood. Holzforschung 56:103-107.

Gindl W, Schoberl T, Jeronimidis G (2004) The interphase in

phenol-formaldehyde and polymeric methylene di-phenyl-diisocyanate glue lines inwood. Int J Adhes Adhes 24:279-286.

Gursoy D, De Carlo F, Xiao X, Jacobsen C (2014) TomoPy:

A framework for the analysis of synchrotron tomographic

data. J Synchrotron Radiat 21:1188-1193.

Hass P, Wittel FK, Mendoza M, Herrmann HJ, Niemz P

(2012) Adhesive penetration in beech wood: experiments.

Wood Sci Technol 46:243-256

Jakes J, Hunt C, Yelle D, Lorenz L, Hirth K, Gleber S-C,

Vogt S, Grigsby W, Frihart C (2015) Synchrotron-based

X-ray fluorescence microscopy in conjunction with

nanoindentation to study molecular-scale interactions of

phenol-formaldehyde in wood cell walls. ACS Appl Mater

Interfaces 7:6584-6589.

Jeremic D, Cooper P, Brodersen P (2007) Penetration of poly

(ethylene glycol) into wood cell walls of red pine. Holzforschung 61:272-278.

Kamke FA, Nairn JA, Muszynski L, Paris J, Schwarzkopf M,

Xiao X (2014) Methodology for micro-mechanical analysis

of wood-adhesive bonds using XCT and numerical

modeling. Wood Fiber Sci 46(1):15-28.

Khoury BM, Bigelow EM, Smith L, Schlecht SH, Scheller

EL, Andarawis-Puri N, Jepsen KJ (2015) The use of nano-computed tomography to enhance musculoskeletal research. Connect Tissue Res 56(2):106-119.

Letiche M, Eustache E, Freixas J, Demortiere A, De Andrade

V, Morgenroth L, Tilmant P, Vaurette F, Troadec D,

Roussel P, Brousse T, Lethien C (2017) Atomic layer

deposition of functional layers for on chip 3D Li-ion all

solid state microbattery. Adv Energy Mater 017;7:1601402.

Lim C, Yan B, Kang H, Song Z, Lee WC, De Andrade V, De

Carlo F, Yin L, Kim Y, Zhu L (2016) Analysis of geometric

and electrochemical characteristics of lithium cobalt

oxide electrode with different packing densities. J Power

Sources 328:46-55.

Mannes D, Marone F, Lehmann E, Stampanoni M, Niemz P

(2010) Application areas of synchrotron radiation tomographic

microscopy for wood research. Wood Sci Technol 44:67-84.

Mayo SC, Chen F, Evans R (2010) Micron-scale 3D imaging of

wood and plant microstructure using high-resolution x-ray

phase-contrast microtomography. J Struct Biol 171:182-188.

McKinley PE, Ching DJ, Kamke FA, Zauner M, Xiao X

(2016) Micro X-ray computed tomography of adhesive

bonds in wood. Wood Fiber Sci 48:2-16.

Metscher BD (2013) Biological applications of X-ray

microtomography: Imaging microanatomy, molecular expression and organismal diversity. Microsc Anal (Am Ed)


Miqueles EX, Rinkel J, O’Dowd F, Bermudez JSV (2014)

Generalized Titarenko’s algorithm for ring artefacts reduction.

J Synchrotron Radiat 21(6):1333-1346.

Modzel G, Kamke FA, De Carlo F (2011) Comparative

analysis of a wood-adhesive bondline. Wood Sci Technol


Paris J, Kamke F (2015) Quantitative wood-adhesive penetration with X-ray computed tomography. Int J Adhes

Adhes 61:71-80.

Paris J, Kamke FA, Mbachu R, Gibson S (2014) Phenol formaldehyde adhesives formulated for advanced X-ray imaging in wood-composite bondlines. J Mater Sci 42(2):580-591.

Pelt DM, Batenburg KJ (2015) Accurately approximating

algebraic tomographic reconstruction by filtered back-projection. Pages 158–161 in Proc. 2015 International

Meeting on Fully Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction

in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine.

Schindelin J, Arganda-Carreras I, Frise E, Kaynig V, Longair

M, Pietzsch T, Preibisch S, Rueden C, Saalfeld S, Schmid B,

Tinevez J-Y,White DJ, Hartenstein V, Eliceiri K, Tomancak

P, Cardona A (2012) Fiji: An open-source platform for

biological-image analysis. Nat Methods 9(7):676-682.

Schneider P, Stauber M, Voide R, Stampanoni M, Donahue

LR, M¨uller R (2007) Ultrastructural properties in cortical

bone vary greatly in two inbred strains of mice as assessed

by synchrotron light based micro- and nano-CT. J Bone

Miner Res 22(10):1557-1569.

Shearing PR, Bradley RS, Gelb J, Lee SN, Atkinson A,

Withers PJ, Brandon NP (2011) Using synchrotron X-ray

nano-CT to characterize SOFC electrode microstructures

in three-dimensions at operating temperature. Electrochem

Solid-State Lett 14(10):B117-B120.

Standfest G, Kranzer S, Petutschnigg A, Dunky M (2010)

Determination of the microstructure of an adhesive-bonded

medium density fiberboard (MDF) using 3-D submicrometer

computer tomography. J Adhes Sci Technol


Steppe K, Cnudde V, Girard C, Lemeur R, Cnudde J-P,

Jacobs P (2004) Use of X-ray computed microtomography

for non-invasive determination of wood anatomical

characteristics. J Struct Biol 148:11-21.

Stockel F, Konnerth J, Moser J, Kantner W, Gindl-Altmutter

W (2012) Micromechanical properties of the interphase in

pMDI and UF bond lines. Wood Sci Technol 46:611-620.

Trtik P, Dual J, Keunecke D, Mannes D, Niemz P, Stahli P,

Stampanoni M (2007) 3D imaging of microstructure of

spruce wood. J Struct Biol 159:46-55.

Vogt S (2003) MAPS: A set of software tools for analysis and

visualization of 3D X-ray fluorescence data sets. J Phys IV


Xu D, Zhang Y, Zhou H, Meng Y, Wang S (2016) Characterization of adhesive penetration in wood bond by

means of scanning thermal microscopy (SThM). Holzforschung


Zauner M, Keunecke D, Mokso R, Stampanoni M, Niemz P

(2012) Synchrotron-based tomographic microscopy

(SbTM) of wood: Development of a testing device and

observation of plastic deformation of uniaxially compressed

Norway spruce samples. Holzforschung 66(8):






Research Contributions