Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Ability of finger-jointed lumber to maintain load at elevated temperatures

Douglas R Rammer, Samuel L Zelinka, Laura E Hasburgh, Steven T Craft

Abstract


This article presents a test method that was developed to screen adhesive formulations for finger-jointed lumber. The goal was to develop a small-scale test that could be used to predict whether an adhesive would pass a full-scale ASTM E119 wall assembly test. The method involved loading a 38-mm square finger-jointed sample in a four-point bending test inside of an oven with a target sample temperature of 204°C. The deformation (creep) was examined as a function of time. It was found that samples fingerjointed with melamine formaldehyde and phenol resorcinol formaldehyde adhesives had the same creep behavior as solid wood. One-component polyurethane and polyvinyl acetate adhesives could not maintain the load at the target temperature measured middepth of the sample, and several different types of creep behavior were observed before failure. This method showed that the creep performance of the one-component adhesives may be quite different than the performance from short-term load deformation curves collected at high temperatures. The importance of creep performance of adhesives in the fire resistance of engineered wood is discussed.

 


Full Text:

PDF

References


Anon (2003) ASCE/SEI/SFPE 29-99. Standard calculation

methods for structural fire protection. American Society of

Civil Engineers, Society of Fire Protection Engineers,

Reston, VA.

Anon (2005) ASTM D198 standard test methods of static

tests of lumber in structural sizes. American Society for

Testing and Materials, Wes Conshohocken, PA.

Anon (2007) Heat-resistant adhesives (HRA) and fingerjointed

lumber. Western Wood Products Association,

Portland, OR.

Anon (2012) ANSI/APA PRG 320: Standard for performance

rated cross-laminated timber. APA-The Engineered

Wood Association, Tacoma, WA.

Anon (2014) ASTM E119 standard test methods for fire tests

of building and construction materials. American Society

for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.

Anon (2016a) ASTM D6815-09. Standard specification for

evaluation of duration of load and creep effects of wood

and wood-based products. American Society for Testing

and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.

Anon (2016b) ASTM D7247-16 “Standard method for

evaluating the shear strength of adhesive bonds in laminated

wood products at elevated temperatures.” American

Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken,

PA.

Brandon D, Ostman B (2016) Fire safety challenges of tall

wood buildings – Phase 2: Task 1—Literature review. Fire

Protection Research Foundation, Quincy, MA.

Buchanan AH (2001) Structural design for fire safety, Vol.

, Wiley, New York, NY.

Callister WD (2003) Materials science and engineering:

An introduction, 6th edition. John Wiley & Sons, New

York, NY.

Clauß S, Dijkstra DJ, Gabriel J, Kl¨ausler O, Matner M,

Meckel W, Niemz P (2011a) Influence of the chemical

structure of PUR prepolymers on thermal stability. Int J

Adhes Adhes 31(6):513-523.

Clauß S, Joscak M, Niemz P (2011b) Thermal stability of

glued wood joints measured by shear tests. Eur J Wood

Wood Prod 69(1):101-111.

Craft ST 2009. CUWoodFrame – A heat and mass transfer

model for light-frame wood floors exposed to fire. Ph.D.

dissertation, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Craft ST, Desjardins R, Richardson LR (2008) Development

of small-scale evaluation methods for wood adhesives at

elevated temperatures. in 10th World Conference on

Timber Engineering.

Frangi A, Bertocchi M, Clauß S, Niemz P (2012) Mechanical

behaviour of finger joints at elevated temperatures.

Wood Sci Technol 46(5):793-812.

Frangi A, Fontana M, Mischler A (2004) Shear behaviour of

bond lines in glued laminated timber beams at high

temperatures. Wood Sci Technol 38(2):119-126.

Gerard R, Barber D, Wolski A (2013) Fire safety challenges

of tall wood buildings. National Fire Protection Research

Foundation, Qunicy, MA.

Klippel M, Frangi A, Hugi E (2013) Experimental analysis of

the fire behavior of finger-jointed timber members. J Struct

Eng 140(3):04013063.

Konig J, Noren J, Sterley M (2008) Effect of adhesives on

finger joint performance in fire. in CIB-W18, Meeting 41.

Saint Andrews, Canada, August 25-28, 2008.

Lehringer C, Gabriel J (2014) Review of recent research

activities on one-component pur-adhesives for engineered

wood products. in Materials and joints in timber structures.

Springer, Dordrecht.

Schaffer EL (1968) A simplified test for adhesive behavior in

wood sections exposed to fire. USDA Forest Service

Research note FPL-0175. U.S. Department of Agriculture,

Madison, WI.

Tannert T, Vallee T, Hehl S (2009) Temperature dependent

strength of adhesively bonded timber joints. in Proc. International Conference on Wood Adhesives, September

-30, 2009, Lake Tahoe, NV.

White RH (1995) Analytical methods for determining fire

resistance of timber members. The SFPE handbook of

fire protection engineering, 2nd edition. National Fire

Protection Association, Quincy, MA.

White RH, Dietenberger MA (2010) Fire safety of wood

construction. in Wood handbook. Wood as an engineering

material. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,

Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI.

Yeh B, Herzog B, Ipsen P, Brooks R (2005) Adhesive

performance at elevated temperatures for engineered

wood products. in Proc. International Conference on

Wood Adhesives, November 2-4, 2005, San Diego, CA


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.