EFFECT OF PROCESSING PARAMETERS ON THE SYNTHESIS OF LIGNIN-BASED GRAPHENE-ENCAPSULATED COPPER NANOPARTICLES
Keywords:Effect, temperature, Graphene encapsulated copper nanoparticles
Graphene-encapsulated copper nanoparticles (GECNs) can be applied in the wood protection
industry. In this study, a simple thermal treatment was applied to a mixture of kraft lignin and copper
sulfate for the synthesis of GECNs. The effect of temperature, duration time, temperature rising ramp, and
argon gas flow rate were investigated on the quality of the GECNs. Temperature was found to be the most
important factor in the growth of graphene; high temperature was preferred to obtain less defective
graphene shells. Gas flow rate, duration time, and temperature rising ramp had less effect. The optimum
synthesis parameters were proposed as 1000C, 30-min duration time, 20C/min temperature rising ramp,
and 1200-sccm argon gas flow rate. Results showed that postheat treatment was a feasible way to improve
the crystallinity of graphite.
Athanassiou EK, Grass RN, Stark WJ (2006) Large-scale production of carbon-coated copper nanoparticles for sensor applications. Nanotechnol 17(6): 1668-1673.
Chae SJ, Güneş F, Kim KK, Kim ES, Han GH, Kim SM, Shin H-J, Yoon S-M, Choi J-Y, Park MH, Yang CW, Pribat D, Lee YH (2009) Synthesis of Large-Area Graphene Layers on Poly-Nickel Substrate by Chemical Vapor Deposition: Wrinkle Formation. Adv Mater 21(22): 2328-2333.
Chen C-S, Hsieh C-K (2014) Effects of acetylene flow rate and processing temperature on graphene films grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition. Thin Solid Films In press.
Coates J. (2000). Interpretation of Infrared Spectra, A Practical Approach. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichesterpp.
Gotoh K, Kinumoto T, Fujii E, Yamamoto A, Hashimoto H, Ohkubo T, Itadani A, Kuroda Y, Ishida H (2011) Exfoliated graphene sheets decorated with metal/metal oxide nanoparticles: Simple preparation from cation exchanged graphite oxide. Carbon 49(4): 1118-1125.
Host JJaD, Vinayak P and Teng, Mao-Hua (1998) Systematic study of graphite encapsulated nickel nanocrystal synthesis with formation mechanism implications. J Mater Res 13(09): 2547--2555.
Hsieh Y-P, Wang Y-W, Ting C-C, Wang H-C, Chen K-Y, Yang C-C (2013) Effect of Catalyst Morphology on the Quality of CVD Grown Graphene. J Nanomater 2013: 1-6.
Huang C-H, Wang HP, Chang J-E, Eyring EM (2009) Synthesis of nanosize-controllable copper and its alloys in carbon shells. Chem Commun(31): 4663.
Lee S, Hong J, Koo JH, Lee H, Lee S, Choi T, Jung H, Koo B, Park J, Kim H, Kim Y-W, Lee T (2013) Synthesis of Few-Layered Graphene Nanoballs with Copper Cores Using Solid Carbon Source. ACS Appl Mater Interf 5(7): 2432-2437.
Mun SP, Cai Z, Zhang J (2013) Fe-catalyzed thermal conversion of sodium lignosulfonate to graphene. Mater Lett 100: 180-183.
Ou Q, Tanaka T, Mesko M, Ogino A, Nagatsu M (2008) Characteristics of graphene-layer encapsulated nanoparticles fabricated using laser ablation method. Diam Relat Mater 17(4-5): 664-668.
Sun Z, Raji A-RO, Zhu Y, Xiang C, Yan Z, Kittrell C, Samuel E, Tour JM (2012) Large-Area Bernal-Stacked Bi-, Tri-, and Tetralayer Graphene. ACS nano 6(11): 9790--9796.
Tarendash AS. (2006). Let's Review Chemistry: The Physical Setting (4th ed.). New York: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Datapp.
Wang K. (2013) Laser based fabrication of graphene, advances in graphene science, In Aliofkhazraei M (Ed.) Advances in graphene science. Intech.
Wang S, Huang X, He Y, Huang H, Wu Y, Hou L, Liu X, Yang T, Zou J, Huang B (2012) Synthesis, growth mechanism and thermal stability of copper nanoparticles encapsulated by multi-layer graphene. Carbon 50(6): 2119-2125.
Wu WaZ, Zhenping and Liu, Zhenyu and Xie, Yaning and Zhang, Jing and Hu, Tiandou (2003) Preparation of carbon-encapsulated iron carbide nanoparticles by an explosion method. Carbon 41(2): 317--321.
Yang H, Yan R, Chen H, Lee DH, Zheng C (2007) Characteristics of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin pyrolysis. Fuel 86(12-13): 1781-1788.
Zhou G, Taylor G, Polle A (2011) FTIR-ATR-based prediction and modelling of lignin and energy contents reveals independent intra-specific variation of these traits in bioenergy poplars. Plant Methods 7(1): 9.
Zou Z, Dai B, Liu Z (2013) CVD process engineering for designed growth of graphene. Sci Sin Chim 43(1): 1.
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.