Structure of Cellulosic Fiber-Derived Carbon Catalyzed by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
Keywords:Graphite film, graphitization, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy
AbstractCatalytic graphitization of iron oxide-nanoparticle-coated cellulosic fibers from wood is presented in this study. Bleached cellulosic fibers coated with iron oxide nanoparticles and the control samples were pyrolyzed at five elevated temperatures: 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, and 1600°C. The structure changes of the fibers were examined by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the graphitization of cellulosic fibers was accelerated during the pyrolysis process by the introduction of iron oxide nanoparticles. The results from XRD and Raman spectroscopy confirmed that at a temperature of greater than 800°C, a cellulosic fiber graphitic structure started to change on the iron oxide-nanoparticle-coated cellulosic fiber samples. A significant increase in the graphitic structure was shown at 1200°C.
Bonnet F, Ropital F, Berthier Y, Marcus P (2003) Filamentous carbon formation caused by catalytic metal particles from iron oxide. Mater Corros 54(11):870-880.nCuesta A, Dhamelincourt P, Laureyns J, Alonso AM, Tascon JMD (1998) Comparative performance of X-ray diffraction and Raman microprobe study for carbon materials. J Mater Chem 8(12):2875-2879.nDhakate SR, Mathur RB, Bahl OP (1997) Catalytic effect of iron oxide on carbon/carbon composites during graphitization. Carbon 35(12):1753-1756.nEndo M (1999) Raman spectroscopic characterization of submicron vapor-grown carbon fibers and carbon nanofibers obtained by pyrolyzing hydrocarbons. J Mater Res 14(12):4474-4477.nFrushhour BG, Knorr RS (1998) Acrylic fibers. Pages 869-1070 in M Lewin and EM Pearce, eds. Handbook of fiber chemistry. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.nGonzalez D, Montes-Moran MA, Young RJ, Garcia AB (2002) Effect of temperature on the graphitization process of a semianthracite. Fuel Process Technol 79(3):245-250.nJawhari T, Roid A, Casado J (1995) Raman spectroscopic characterization of some commercially available carbon black materials. Carbon 33(11):1561-1565.nJekins GM, Kawwamura K (1976) Polymeric carbon-carbon fiber, glass and char. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.nKercher AK, Nagle DC (2003) Microstructural evolution during charcoal carbonization by X-ray diffraction analysis. Carbon 41(1):15-27.nKnight DS, White WB (1989) Characterization of diamond films by Raman spectroscopy. J Mater Res 4(2):385-393.nKo TH (1996) Raman spectrum of modified PAN-based carbon fibers during graphitization. J Appl Polym Sci 59(4):577-580.nLee JY, Liang K, An KH, Lee YH (2005) Nickel oxide/carbon nanotubes nanocomposite for electrochemical capacitance. Synth Met 150(2):153-157.nLo CK, Xiao D, Choi MMF (2007) Homocysteine-protected gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles: Synthesis and characterization. J Mater Chem 17(23):2418-2427.nLota K, Sierczynska A, and Lota G (2011) Supercapacitors based on nickel oxide/carbon materials composites. International Journal of Electrochemistry. [Online] 2011 Article ID: 321473, 6 pages. doi:10.4061/2011/321473.nNistor LC, Van Landuyt J, Strelnitsky VE (1994) Direct observation of laser-induced crystallization of a-C: H films. Appl Phys A-Mater 58:137-144.nOka H, Inagaki M, Kaburagi Y, Hishiyama Y (1999) Incorporation of iron particles into carbon films derived from polyimide. Solid State Ion 121:157-163.nPark SH, Jo SM, Kim DY, Lee WS, Kim BC (2005) Effects of iron catalyst on the formation of crystalline domain during carbonization of electrospun acrylic nanofiber. Synth Met 150:265-270.nSaikia BK, Boruah RK, Gogoi PK (2009) A X-ray diffraction analysis on graphene layers of Assam coal. J Chem Sci 121(1):103-106.nScott JHJ, Majetich SA (1998) Morphology, structure, and growth of nanoparticles produced in a carbon arc. Phys Rev B 52:12564-12571.nSheng ZM, Wang JN (2009) Growth of magnetic carbon with a nanoporous graphitic structure. Carbon 47(14):3271-3279.nTai FC, Wei C, Chang SH, Chen WS (2009) Raman and X-ray diffraction analysis on unburned carbon powder refined from fly ash. J Raman Spectrosc 10:2532-2536.nTartaj P, Morales MP, Veintemillas-Verdaguer S, Gonzalez-Carreno T, Serna CJ (2003) The preparation of magnetic nanoparticles for applications in biomedicine. J Phys D Appl Phys 36:182-197.nThygesen A, Oddershede J, Lilholt H, Thomsen AB, Stahl K (2005) On the determination of crystallinity and cellulose content in plant fibres. Cellulose 12:563-576.nTuinstra F, Koenig JL, Chem J (1970) Raman spectrum of graphite. Physics 53:1126-1130.nTzeng SS (2006) Catalytic graphitization of electroless Ni-P coated PAN-based carbon fibers. Carbon 44(10):1986-1993.nVangala K, YanneyM, Hsiao CT, WuWW, Shen RF, Zou S, Sygula A, Zhang D (2010) Sensitive carbohydrate detection using surface enhanced Raman tagging. Anal Chem 82(24):10164-10171.nWarren BE, Bodenstein P (1965) The diffraction pattern of fine particle carbon blacks. Acta Crystallogr 18(2):282-286.nXie X, Goodell B, Qian Y, Peterson M, Jellison J (2008) Significance of the heating rate on the physical properties of carbonized maple wood. Holzforschung 62(5):591-596.nZhang D, Ansar SM (2010) Ratiometric surface enhanced Raman quantification of ligand adsorption onto a gold nanoparticle. Anal Chem 82(13):5910-5914.nZhang D, Vangala K, Li S, Yanney M, Xia H, Zou S, Sygula A (2011) Acid cleavable surface enhanced Raman tagging for protein detection. Analyst (Lond) 136(3):520-526.nZickler GA, Smarsly B, Gierlinger N, Peterlik H, Paris O (2006) A reconsideration of the relationship between the crystallite size La of carbons determined by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Carbon 44(15):3239-3249.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.