Technical Note: Anatomical Variability within a Loblolly Pine Tree under Thinning Management


  • Gi Young Jeong
  • Audrey Zink-Sharp


Anatomical properties, thinning, wood quality, loblolly pine


Density, ring width, and cell structure were analyzed at different sampling heights and growth ring numbers in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) tree under thinning management. Density, latewood percentage, cell length, and latewood cell wall thickness increased with growth ring number. Tracheid length, latewood tangential cell wall thickness, and earlywood radial cell diameter increased with height. Density, ring width, latewood percentage, cell length, and latewood cell wall thickness increased after thinning treatment. With more information on anatomical properties associated with growth ring number, height, and thinning treatment, wood resources can be more efficiently oriented toward end-use products.


Arbaugh MJ, Peterson DL (1993) Stemwood production patterns in ponderosa pine: Effects of stand dynamics and other factors. Res Pap PSW-RP-217 USDA For Serv Pacific Southwest Res Stn, Albany, CA. 11 p.nASTM (2004) D 2395. Standard test methods for specific gravity of wood and wood-based materials. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.nBrix H, Mitchell AK (1983) Thinning and nitrogen fertilization effects on sapwood development and relationships of foliage quantity to sapwood area and basal area in Douglas-fir. Can J For Res 13:384-389.nDean TJ, Baldwin VC Jr (1996) Growth in loblolly pine plantations as a function of stand density and canopy properties. For Ecol Mgmt 82:49-58.nEvans J (1992) Plantation forestry in the tropics. 2nd ed. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.nFox TR, Jokela EJ, Allen HL (2007) The development of pine plantation silviculture in the southern United States. J Forestry 105:337-347.nFujiwara S, Yang KC (2000) The relationship between cell length and ring width and circumferential growth rate in five Canadian species. IAWA J 21:335-345.nKozlowski TT (1971) Growth and development of trees 11. Cambial growth, root growth and reproductive growth. Academic Press, New York, NY.nKozlowski TT, Pallardy SG (1997) Physiology of woody plants. Academic Press, New York, NY.nLarson PR (1963) Stem form development of forest trees. Forest Science Monographs 5:1-42.nLarson PR, Kretschmann DE, Clark A III, Isebrands JG (2001) Juvenile wood formation and properties in southern pine. Gen Tech Rep FPL-GTR-129. USDA For Serv Forest Prod Lab, Madison, WI.nMcMillan CW (1968) Morphological characteristics of loblolly pine wood as related to specific gravity, growth rate and distance from pith. Wood Sci Technol 2:166-176.nMyers CA (1963) Vertical distribution of annual increment in thinned ponderosa pine. Forest Sci 9:394-404.nPeterson JA, Seiler JR, Nowak J, Ginn SE, Kreh RE (1997) Growth and physiological responses of young loblolly pine stands to thinning. Forest Sci 43:529-534.nReukema DL (1961) Seed production of Douglas-fir increased by thinning. Res Note 210. USDA For Serv Pacific Northwest Forest Range Exp Stn, Portland, OR.nSchultz RP (1997) Loblolly pine. The ecology and culture of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) Agric Handb 713. USDA For Serv, Washington, DC.nSmith DM, Wilsie MC (1961) Some anatomical responses of loblolly pine to soil-water deficiencies. TAPPI J 44(3): 179-185.nSmith WB, Miles PD, Vissage JS, Pugh SA (2004) Forest resources of the United States, 2002. Gen Tech Rep NC-241. USDA For Serv North Central Res Stn, St. Paul, MN.nSnowdon P, Waring HD (1995) Response of young densely stocked stands of Pinus radiata to thinning and refertilization. New For 10:207-223.nSword MA, Haywood JD, Andries CD (1998) Seasonal lateral root growth of juvenile loblolly pine after thinning and fertilization on a gulf coastal plain site. Pages 194-201 in TA Waldrop, ed. Proc Ninth Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference. USDA For Serv Southern Res Stn, Ashville, NC.nTasissa G, Burkhart HE (1997) Modeling thinning effects on ring width distribution in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). Can J For Res 27:1291-1301.nTaylor RW, Burton JD (1982) Growth ring characteristics, specific gravity, and fiber length of rapidly grown loblolly pine. Wood Fiber Sci 14:204-210.nYu S, Cao QV, Chambers JL, Tang Z, Haywood JD (1999) Managing leaf area for maximum volume production in a loblolly pine plantation. Pages 455-460 in JD Haywood, ed. Proc Tenth Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference. USDA For Serv Southern Res Stn, Ashville, NC.n






Research Contributions