Specific Gravity and Fiber Length Variation in a European Black Alder Provenance Study
Keywords:Wood quality, Alnus, specific gravity, fiber length, genetic improvement
AbstractSpecific gravity and fiber length variation among 13 provenances of Alnus glutinosa were studied. Based on mean provenance values, specific gravity varied from 0.37 to 0.42, and fiber length varied from 0.68 mm to 1.01 mm. Single-tree maximum values were slightly higher. Analysis of variance indicated no significant differences among provenances for either trait. Patterns of variation from pith to bark and from the base to top of the tree are presented. The potential for genetic improvement of these traits is discussed.
Balodis, V. 1966. Co-ordinate systems based on the age of growth rings and internodes in trees. J. Inst. Wood Sci. 16:35-42.nBruun, H. H., and S. Sluungaard. 1957. Investigations of porous wood as pulp raw material. 1. Fiber lengths of the species Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn., Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Betula verrucosa Ehrn., and Populus tremula (L.). Papper och Tra 39(11):521-525.nDinwoodie, J. M. 1961. Tracheid and fiber length in timber: A review of the literature. Forestry 34:125-144.nDuff, G. H., and N. J. Nolan. 1953. Growth and morphogenesis in the Canadian forest species. I. The control of cambial and apical activity in Pinus resinosaAit. Can. J. Bot. 31:471-513.nEinspahr, D. W., J. P. van Buijtenen, and E. F. Thor. 1962. Wood and pulp properties determined from slash pine increment core and whole tree measurements. Silvae Genet. 11(3):68-77.nFranklin, G. L. 1946. A rapid method for softening wood for microtome sectioning. Trop. Woods Yale Univ. Sch. For. 88:35-36.nFunk, D. T. 1973. Growth and development of alder plantings on Ohio strip-mine lands. Pages 483-491 in R. J. Hutnik and G. Davis, eds. Ecology and reclamation of devastated land, vol. 1. Gordon and Breach, New York.nFunk, D. T. 1979. Alnus glutinosa provenance trials on Ohio strip mines: Sixteen-year results. Pages 28-32 in R. P. Guries, ed. Proceedings of the First North Central Tree Improvement Conference, Madison, WI, 21-23 August 1979. University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.nGeyer, W. A. 1981. Growth, yield and woody biomass characteristics of seven short-rotation hardwoods. Wood Sci. 13(4):209-215.nHaarlea, R., and M. Karkkainen. 1982. Fiber length in black alder. Silva Fenn. 16(4):343-350.nKellison, R. C., and G. White. 1979. Black alder performance in the Southeast. Pages 345-355 in J. C. Gordon, C. T. Wheeler, and D. A. Perry, eds. Proceedings of a Workshop, "Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in the Management of Temperate Forests," 2-5 April 1979. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.nLarson, P. R. 1969. Wood formation and the concept of wood quality. Yale Univ. Sch. For. Bull. 74. 54 pp.nMorin, M. J. 1974. NSSC pulping of young European black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.). TAPPI 57(6):133-135.nNamkoong, G., A. C. Barefoot, and R. G. Hitchings. 1969. Evaluating control of wood quality through breeding. TAPPI 52(10):1935-1938.nPanshin, A. J., and C. deZeeuw. 1980. Textbook of wood technology, 4th ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. 722 pp.nRichardson, S. D. 1961. A biological basis for sampling in studies of wood properties. TAPPI 44(3):170-173.nRobison, T. L. 1984. Age-age correlations, trait correlations, and wood property variation for an Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. provenance study. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Iowa State University, Ames, IA. Univ. Microfilms International 8423670.nSmith, D. M. 1954. Maximum moisture content method for determining specific gravity of small wood samples. U.S. For. Serv. FPL Rep. 2014. Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI. 3 pp.nSmith, W. J. 1967. The heritability of fiber characteristics and its application to wood quality improvement in forest trees. Silvae Genet. 16(2):41-51.nVurdu, H., and D. W. Bensend. 1979. Specific gravity and fiber length in European black alder roots, branches, and stems. Wood Sci. 12(2):103-105.nWilcox, M. D. 1977. Some problems in selection to improve wood properties. Pages 231-225 in D. G. Nikles, J. Burley, and R. D. Barnhes, eds. Proceedings of a joint workshop on "Progress and Problems of Genetic Improvement of Tropical Forest Trees." Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 4-7 April 1977. Dept. of Forestry, Commonwealth Forestry Inst., University of Oxford, Great Britain.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.