Permeability Changes Induced in Three Western Conifers by Selective Bacterial Inoculation
Keywords:Tsuga heterophylla, Abies grandis, Pseudotsuga menziesii, permeability, bacteria, Bacillus polymyxa, sapwood, bordered pit membranes, torus
AbstractThe longitudinal gas permeability and impregnability with paraffin oil of western hemlock, grand fir, and Douglas-fir sapwood markedly increased after exposure to bacteria. Heartwood was not affected. Bacillus polymyxa was more effective in increasing gas permeability than any other single or mixed culture tested. Scanning electron microscopy suggested that this was largely due to degradation of bordered pit membranes.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). 1976. Standard method of testing wood preservatives by laboratory soil-block cultures. ASTM Standard Method D 1413-76. ASTM, Phila., PA.nBauch, J., and H. Berndt. 1973. Variability of the chemical composition of pit membranes in bordered pits of gymnosperms. Wood Sci. Technol. 7(1):6-19.nBauch, J., W. Liese, and H. Berndt. 1970. Biological investigations for the improvement of the permeability of softwoods. Holzforschung 24(6):199-205.nBlew, J. O., and H. L. Davidson. 1971. Preservative retentions and penetration in the treatment of white fir. Am. Wood-Preserv. Assoc. Proc. 67:204-221.nComstock, G. L. 1968. Relationship between permeability of green and dry eastern hemlock. For. Prod. J. 18(8):20-23.nDegroot, R. C., and I. B. Sachs. 1976. Permeability, enzyme activity, and pit membrane structure of stored southern pines. Wood Sci. 9(2):89-96.nDundas, K. B., and R. R. White. 1972. The development of a treating procedure for western hemlock poles. Am. Wood-Preserv. Assoc. Proc. 68:169-174.nDunleavy, J. A., and A. J. Mcquire. 1970. The effect of water storage on the cell-structure of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) with reference to its permeability and preservation. J. Inst. Wood Sci. 5(2):20-28.nDunleavy, J. A., J. P. Moroney, and S. E. Rossell. 1973. The association of bacteria with the increased permeability of water-stored spruce wood. Proc. B.W.P.A. 1973 Ann. Conv. July 2-5, Cambridge. Brit. Wood Pres. Assoc., London.nEllwood, E. L., and B. A. Ecklund. 1959. Bacterial attack on pine logs in pond storage. For. Prod. J. 9:283-292.nFogarty, W. M. 1973. Bacteria, enzymes, and wood permeability. Process Biochem. 8(6):30-34.nFogarty, W. M., and O. P. Ward. 1973. Microbial enzymes, the causative agents of the increased penetrability of water-stored Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) to preservatives. Federation of European Biochemical Societies Abstracts. Dublin.nGreaves, H. 1970. The effect of some wood-inhabiting bacteria on the permeability characteristics and microscopic features of Eucalyptus regnans and of Pinus radiata sapwood and heartwood. Holzforschung 24(1):6-14.nJutte, S. M. 1971. Wood structure in relation to excessive absorption-a literature survey. Houtinstitutt TNO, Delft, Netherlands.nKnuth, D. T. 1964. Bacteria associated with wood products and their effects on certain chemical and physical properties of wood. Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Bacteriology, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison.nKnuth, D. T., and E. Mccoy. 1962. Bacterial deterioration of pine logs in pond storage. For. Prod. J. 12(9):437-442.nMeyer, R. W. 1974. Effect of enzyme treatment on bordered-pit ultrastructure, permeability, and toughness of the sapwood of three western conifers. Wood Sci. 6(3):220-230.nNicholas, D. D., and R. J. Thomas. 1968. The influence of enzymes on the structure and permeability of loblolly pine. Am. Wood-Preserv. Assoc. Proc. 64:70-76.nRossell, S. E., E. G. M. Abbot, and J. F. Levy. 1973. Bacteria and wood. A review of the literature relating to the presence, action, and interaction of bacteria in wood. J. Inst. Wood Sci. 6(2):28-35.nSuolahti, O., and A. Wallen. 1958. The effect of water storage on the water absorption capacity of pine sapwood. Holz Roh-Werkst. 16:8-17.nTschernitz, J. L. 1973. Enzyme mixture improves creosote treatment of kiln-dried Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir. For. Prod. J. 23(3):30-38.nTschernitz, J. L. and I. B. Sachs. 1975. Observations on microfibril organization of Douglas-fir bordered pitpair membranes by scanning electron microscopy. Wood Fiber 6(4):332-340.nUnligil, H. H. 1969. Effect of water storage and Trichoderma infection on penetrability of wood. Inform. Rep. No. OP-X-12. Eastern For. Prod. Lab., Ottawa, Ont.nWard, O. P., and W. M. Fogarty. 1972. Bacterial growth and enzyme production in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) sapwood during water storage. J. Inst. Wood Sci. 6(2):8-12.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.