Laminating Creosote-Treated Hardwoods
Keywords:Creosote-treated, lamination, red oak, red maple, chestnut oak, yellow-poplar, southern pine
AbstractA study was conducted to investigate the bondability of four selected hardwood species after being treated with creosote. A completely randomized block factorial design was employed. Experimental factors included five wood species (chestnut oak, red oak, red maple, yellow-poplar, and southern pine), five adhesive systems (elevated temperature cure phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde, room temperature cure phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde, resorcinol-formaldehyde, emulsion polymer isocyanate, and low-viscosity formulation emulsion polymer isocyanate) and two exposure levels (ambient room and vacuum/pressure/soak conditions). Exposure levels effects on the different wood species resulted in highly variable adhesive system performance. Exposure level effects were most evident for the higher density oaks. Shear strength and percent wood failure results for all wood species revealed a general trend towards a higher performance for the two phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde systems. Res-orcinol-based adhesive systems had the highest shear strength values. Percent wood failure values were highest for the elevated temperature cure phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde system for all species. Elevated temperature cure adhesive systems appeared to be required to successfully bond high-density creosote treated species. Successful bonding of medium-density species can be accomplished at room temperatures given proper adhesive system selection.
American Institute of Timber Construction (AITC). 1983. American national standard for wood products—Structural glued laminated timber. ANSI/AITC A190.1-83. American Institute of Timber Construction, Englewood, CO.nAmerican Institute of Timber Construction (AITC). 1987. Inspection manual. AITC 200-83. American Institute of Timber Construction, Englewood, CO. 96 pp.nAmerican Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). 1988. Standard method of test for shear of adhesives by compression loading. ASTM D905. Standard test methods for integrity of glue joints in structural laminated wood products for exterior use. ASTM D1101. Philadelphia, PA.nAmerican Wood Preservers' Association (AWPA). 1989. Method for the determination of oil-type preservatives and water in wood A6-89. 6 pp.nBlomquist, R. F. 1981. Adhesives—An overview. Adhesive bonding of wood and other structural materials. Vol. III. C. Clark Heritage Memorial Series on Wood, edited by R. F. Blomquist, A. W. Christiansen, R. H. Gillespie, and G. E. Myers. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. Pp. 1-48.nDoskar, C. D., and A. C. Knauss. 1944. Laminating lumber for extreme service conditions. Mech. Eng. 66: 763-773.nFreas, A. D., and M. L. Selbo. 1954. Fabrication and design of glued laminated wood structural members. USDA Forest Products Lab Tech. Bulletin 1069. 214 pp.nHenry, W. T., and R. E. Gardner. 1954. Gluing pressure treated wood with resorcinol type adhesives. J. FPRS 4(10):300-303.nJanowiak, J. J., P. R. Blankenhorn, and H. B. Manbeck. 1990. Evaluation of adhesive systems for use with selected secondary hardwood species. Hardwood Development Council Program Research Report ME88-148-0881. Pennsylvania Commonwealth, Department of Commerce. 50 pp.nKilmer, W. R. 1992. Bondability of creosote-treated hardwoods. M.S. thesis, School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. 105 pp.nKuenzel, J. G., N. V. Poletika, and H. B. Mckean. 1953. The gluing of preservative-treated wood for severe service conditions. J. FPRS 3(12):35-40.nLindsley, D. L. 1947. Report of special committee on preservative and fire retardant treatments of laminated members (plywood and glued-up fabrication). Proc., Am. Wood-Preservers' Assoc. 43:231-236.nLindsley, D. L. 1948. Report of special committee on preservative and fire retardant treatments of laminated members (plywood and glued-up fabrication). Proc., Am. Wood-Preservers' Association 44:380-382.nMoult, R. H. 1977. The bonding of glued-laminated timbers. Pages 283-293 in: I. S. Goldstein, ed. Wood technology: Chemical aspects, a Symposium. ACS Symposium Series 43. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.nSas Institute, Inc. 1985. SAS User's guide: Statistics. Version 5. Ed. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC 956 pp.nSelbo, M. L. 1950. Summary of information on gluing of treated wood, 1950. USDA Forest Products Lab Rep. R1789. Madison, WI. 12 pp.nSelbo, M. L. 1952. Durability of glue joints in preservative treated wood. So. Lumberman 185-203-206.nSelbo, M. L. 1957. Laminating of preservative-treated wood. Proc., Am. Wood-Preservers' Association 53:48-55.nSelbo, M. L. 1967. Long-term effect of preservatives on gluelines in laminated timbers. Forest Prod. J. 17(5):23-32.nSelbo, M. L., and H. W. Angell. 1955. Performance of laminated preservative-treated railroad bridge stringers. Forest Prod. J. 5(2):84-88.nSelbo, M. L., and O. Gronvold. 1958. Laminating preservative treated scotch pine. Forest Prod. J. 8(9):25-26.nShaffer, K. L., H. B. Manbeck, P. R. Blankenhorn, J. J. Janowiak, and P. L. Labosky. 1991. Structural performance of treated and untreated northern red oak glued laminated members. ASAE Paper No. 91-4658. St. Joseph, MI.nTruax, T. R., J. O. Blew, and M. L. Selbo. 1953. Production of preservative-treated laminated timbers. Proc., Am. Wood Preservers' Association 49:113-123.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.