Effect of Nutrients on Spore Germination of <i>Gliocladium Roseum</i> and <i>Ophiostoma Piceae</i>
Keywords:Biological control, biocontrol, spore germination, sapstain, <i>Gliocladium roseum</i>, <i>Ophiostoma piceae</i>, nutrients, sugar alcohols, inorganic nitrogen compounds, amino acids
AbstractBiological control agents that are applied as spore suspensions must germinate to exert their desired effects. Nutrients are one possible factor that can be manipulated to enhance spore germination and subsequent microbial colonization of wood. Sugar alcohols, inorganic and organic nitrogen compounds (amino acids) were evaluated for their ability to selectively enhance germination of spores (conidia) of Gliocladium roseum. While sugar alcohols and inorganic nitrogen compounds showed no selective effect on spore germination of G. roseum, some of the amino acids, notably L-phenylalanine and β-alanine, selectively enhanced germination of G. roseum over Ophiostoma piceae.
Al-Hassan K. K., and C. L. Fergus. 1973. The effects of nutrients and environment on germination and longevity of oospores of Pythium hydnosporum. Mycol. Appl. 51:283-293.nBlakeman, J. P. 1975. Germination of Botrytis cinerea conidia in vitro in relation to nutrient conditions on leaf surfaces. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 65:239-247.nBlakeman, J. P., and I. D. Brodie. 1977. Competition for nutrients between epiphytic micro-organisms and germination of spores of plant pathogens on beet root leaves. Physiol. Plant. Pathol. 10:29-42.nDaigle, J. D., and P. Cotty. 1991. The influence of cysteine, cysteine analogs, and other amino acids on spore germination of Alternaria species. Can. J. Bot. 69: 2353-2356.nDawson-Andoh, B. E., and J. J. Morrell. 1992. Enhancing the performance of bioprotection agents by treatment with waterborne salts. Wood Fiber Sci. 24(3): 347-352.nDawson-Andoh, B. E., and J. J. Morrell. 1997. Biological protection of freshly sawn sapwood from biological discolorations. In Prevention of discolorations in hardwoods and softwood logs and lumber. Forest Products Society Pub No. 7283: 3-9.nFokkema, N. J. 1984. Competition for endogenous and exogenous nutrients between Sporobolomyces roseus and Cochliobolus sativus. Can. J. Bot. 62:2463-2468.nHarman, G., and R. D. Lumsden. 1990. Biological disease control. Pages 259-279 in J. M. Lynch, ed. The rhizosphere. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, NY.nJackson, A. M., J. M. Whipps, and M. J. Bazin. 1991. Effects of same carbon and nitrogen sources on spores germination, production of biomass and antifungal metabolites by species of Trichoderma and Gliocladium virens antagonistic to Sclerotium cepivorium. Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 1:43-51.nJaniesiewicz, W. J., and B. Bors. 1995. Development of a microbial community of bacterial and yeast antagonists to control wound-invading postharvest pathogens of fruits. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61(9):3261-3267.nJaniesiewicz, W. J., J. Ustall, and B. Bors. 1992. Nutritional enhancement of biocontrol of blue mold on apples. Phytopathol. 82:1364-1370.nKosuge, T., and W. B. Hewitt. 1964. Exudates of grape berries and their effect on germination of conidia of Botrytis cinerea. Phytopathol. 54:167-172.nMorris, C. E., and D. I. Rouse. 1982. Diversity of epiphytic bacterial communities on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves and pods based on nutrient utilization. Abtrs. Phytopathol. 72:936.nSas Institute Inc. 1990. SAS/STAT Users Guide. Version 6. 4th Edition. Cary. NC.nSeifert, K. A. 1993. Sapstain of commercial lumber by species of Ophiostoma and Ceratocystis. Pages 145-155 in M. J. Wingfield, K. A. Seifert, and J. M. Webber, eds. Ceratocystis and ophiostoma: Taxonomy ecology and pathogenicity. American Phytopathological Society.nSeifert, K. A., C. Breuil, L. Rossignol, M. Best, and J. N. Saddler. 1988. Screening microorganisms with the potential for biological control of sapstain on unseasoned lumber. Mat. Und Org. 23:81-95.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.