Three-Dimensional Modeling and Visualization of Whole Norway Spruce Latewood Tracheids

Stig L. Bardage


The three-dimensional morphology of four whole Norway spruce latewood tracheids is described in this work. Tracheids are shown to have a characteristic shape composed of five different morphological zones. Visualization of the different morphological zones was accomplished with the use of computerized three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. 3D reconstructions were generated from stacks of micrographs obtained from serial sections of a wood block. The micrographs were processed and integrated in a CAD-based computerized modeling system using Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS), which produces 3D reconstructions consisting of surfaces or volumetric bodies. Volumetric changes in relation to hydration state of latewood tracheid segments were studied. It was found that tracheid tips swell less than central regions, and that as a consequence of swelling, the cell walls of Norway spruce latewood tracheids expand inward towards the lumen.


Three-dimensional;reconstruction;modeling;spruce;<i>Picea abies</i>;latewood tracheids;tracheid width;cell-wall thickness;swelling;shrinkage

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