A Model for Predicting Wood Failure with Respect to Grain Angle in Orthogonal Cutting


  • Harold A. Stewart


Surface quality, knife cutting, wood machining, orthogonal cutting, torn grain


Hardwoods were orthogonally cut against the grain to determine a relation between slope of grain and wood failure. White ash, sugar maple, and basswood specimens at approximately 8% moisture content were cut with a 40° rake angle cutter, 0.010-inch depth of cut, and 61/2 inches per minute feed rate. Certain types of wood failure were associated with the inflection points and maximum of the model μ = Θab(Θ-c) + d, where μ was the cutting coefficient of friction determined from cutting forces and rake angle and Θ was the grain angle in radians.


Forest Products Laboratories Division. 1951. Canadian woods: Their properties and uses. Forestry Branch. Dep. of Resources and Development. Ottawa. Ontario, Canada. 367 pp.nFranz, N. C. 1958. Analysis of the wood-cutting process. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 152 pp.nStewart, H. A. 1969. Effect of cutting direction with respect to grain angle on the quality of machined surface, tool force components, and cutting friction coefficient. For. Prod. J.19(3):43-46.nStewart, H. A. 1970. Abrasive vs. knife planing. For. Prod. J.20(7):43-47.nStewart, H. A. 1971. Chip formation when orthogonally cutting wood against the grain. Wood Sci.3(4):193-203.nUSDA Forest Products Laboratory. 1974. Wood handbook: Wood as an engineering material. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Agriculture Handbook 72 (rev.)n






Research Contributions