Adhesive Penetration in Wood—a Review

Frederick A. Kamke, Jong N. Lee


Adhesive bond performance between wood elements is presumed to be significantly influenced by the degree of penetration of the adhesive into the porous network of interconnected cells. Research on the bondline performance has been conducted through microscopic examination and associated techniques in an effort to establish relationships with the bond performance. The purpose of this communication is to provide a technical review of research on adhesive penetration, and to promote the efficient use of adhesives in regard to cost and performance, particularly in reference to the manufacture of wood-based composites. Assessment techniques, influence on bond performance, and distinctive characteristics of common adhesives used for the wood-based composites industry were the main focus of this review. Variability between wood species, the wide variety of adhesive application and curing processes, and the many types of adhesive chemistries and formulations make sweeping generalities difficult. However, troubleshooting bonding problems and designing new adhesive systems and processes may be facilitated by understanding the fundamentals of adhesive penetration.


Bonding;resin penetration;microscopy

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