Prediction of Creep in Plywood Part I. Prediction Models for Creep in Plywood


  • D. E. Lyon
  • A. P. Schniewind


Plywood, creep, viscoelasticity, orthotropic elasticity, two-dimensional stress analysis, modeling, predicting


Three models for predicting creep in plywood from measured constituent properties were formulated using phenomenological linear viscoelastic theory. The three models represent a one-dimensional, quasi-elastic solution, a two-dimensional, quasi-elastic solution, and a two-dimensional, viscoelastic solution. In part II of this study, the models will be used to compute the principal components of the two-dimensional creep compliance tensor for plywood and will show that predictions of creep behavior based on all three solutions give similar results. The most accurate prediction of parallel and perpendicular creep was made with the one-dimensional model.


Anonymous. 1964. Bending strength and stiffness of plywood. U.S. For. Serv. Note FPL-059.nBach, L. 1965. Non-linear mechanical behavior of wood in longitudinal tension. Ph.D. Dissertation. State Univ. Coll. For. at Syracuse Univ.nCampredon, M. J. 1947. Creep tests. Institute Technique du Batementet des Travaus Publics. Circulaire serie H(32), Paris.nCost, T. L. 1964. Approximate Laplace transform inversion in viscoelastic stress analysis. Am. Inst, Aeronaut Astronaut 2(12):2157-2166.nCurry, W. T. 1957. The strength properties of plywood. Part 3: The influence of the adhesive. For. Prod. Res. Bull. No. 39. London.nFlugge, W. 1967. Viscoelasticity. Blaisdell Publishing Co., Waltham, Massachusetts.nGressel, P. 1972a. (The effect of climate and loading on the creep behavior of wood base materials. Part 1: Previous investigations, testing plan, research methods.) Holz Roh- Werkst 30(7):259- 266.nGressel, P. 1972b. (Effect of climate and loading on the creep behavior of wood base materials. Part 2: Test results in dependency on the creep parameters.) Holz Roh- Werkst 30(9):347-355.nGressel, P. 1972c. (Effect of climate and loading on the creep behavior of wood base materials. Part 3: Discussion of results.) Holz Roh- Werkst 30(12):479:488.nHalligan, A. F. 1965. Creep of particleboard under load. M.S. Thesis, University of Sidney, Australia.nHalpin, J. C., and N. J. Pagano. 1968. Observations on linear anisotropic viscoelasticity. J. Comp. Mater. 2(1):68-80.nHearman, R. F. S. 1948. Elasticity of wood and plywood. For. Prod. Res. Special Rep. No. 7, London.nHildebrand, F. B. 1960. Advanced calculus for engineers. Prentice Hall, Inc., New York.nKalina, M. 1972. Rheological behavior and fatigue strength of plywood, particleboards and hard-boards. Holz-technologie 13(3): 172-5.nKreysizig, E. 1967. Advanced engineering mathematics. Second edition. John Wiley and Sons. Inc., New York.nMasuda, M., H. Sasaki, and T. Maku. 1969. Numerical analysis of orthotropic plates. Wood Res. Kyoto No. 47:12-38. Japan.nNarayanamurti, D., and B. S. Aswathnarayana. 1970. On creep behavior of laminated wood from teak. 1st information. Holztechnologie 11(2): 116-119.nNorris, C. B., and W. J. Kommers. 1943. Plastic flow (creep) properties of two yellow birch plywood plates under constant shear stress. U.S. For. Prod. Lab. Rep. No. 1324.nOkuma, M. 1966. Studies on mechanical properties of plywood. Part II: Young's modulus in bending. J. Jap. Wood Res. Soc. 12(1):20-25.nPerkitny, T., and P. Steller. 1972. Comparative investigations of the deformations of plywood and laminated wood under constant and variable flexural load over long periods. Holztechnologie 13(1):43-49.nPreston, S. B. 1954. The effect of synthetic resin adhesives on the strength and physical properties of wood veneer laminates. Yale University, School For. Bull. No. 60.nRanta-Maunus, A. 1972. Viscoelasticity of plywood under constant climatic conditions. Report No. 3. State Inst. Tech. Res., Helsinki.nRanta-Maunus, A. 1973. Deformations in plywood structures caused by long-term loading. Papper Och Tra 1(1):15-22.nRautakorpi, H. 1969. Plywood as a laminated structure. Series 3. Report No. 138. State Inst. Tech. Res., Helsinki.nRautakorpi, H. 1971. An analysis of constructional plywood. Report No. 165. State Inst. Tech. Res., Helsinki.nSawada, M., K. Kondo, and K. Hata. 1959. Studies on the elasticity of plywood. Part 2: The effect of grain direction on the elastic constants of multilayer plywood in tension or bending. J. Jap. Wood Res. Soc. 5(4):131-138.nSchapery, R. A. 1961. Two simple approxiamate methods of Laplace transform inversion for viscoelastic stress anlysis. CALCIT 119, Contract No. AF 33(616)-8399. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.nSchapery, R. A. 1962. Approxiamate methods of transform inversion for viscoelastic stress analysis. Proc. 4th U.S. Natl. Congr. of Appl. Mech. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.nSchapery, R. A. 1967. Stress analysis of viscoelastic composite materials. J. Comp. Mater. 1(3):228-267.nSchniewind, A. P. 1968. Recent progress in the study of the rheology of wood. Wood Sci. Tech. 2(3):188-206.nSchniewind, A. P. 1972. Elastic behavior of the wood fiber. In: B. A. Jayne, ed. Theory and design of wood and fiber composite materials. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, New York.nStavsky, Y., and N. V. Hoff. 1969. Mechanics of composite structures. In: A. F. H. Dietz, ed. Composite engineering laminates. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.nSteller, S. 1967. Determining some strength properties of plywood by calculation. Drev. Vyskum (1):27-37.nYagishita, M., and Y. Egusa. 1965. Studies on plywoods. Part 14: The effect of lathe checks on bond strength of plywood. Bull. For. Exp. Sta. Meguo No. 176:173-185, Tokyo.n






Research Contributions