Response Analysis of Wood Structures Under Natural Hazard Dynamic Loads
Keywords:Wood structures, hysteresis modeling, dynamic analysis, random vibrations
AbstractThe basic requirements needed for response analysis of wood structures against natural hazards are reviewed. A method for stochastic dynamic analysis of wood structures, which allows investigations into their performance and safety under natural hazards such as earthquakes and severe winds, is presented. To illustrate the method, earthquake ground motions are modeled as a stochastic process with Gaussian white noise properties. A single-degree-of-freedom wood structural system is modeled by a hysteretic constitutive law that produces a smoothly varying hysteresis. It models previously observed behavior of wood joints and structural systems, namely, (1) nonlinear, inelastic behavior, (2) stiffness degradation, (3) strength degradation, and (4) pinching. The constitutive law takes into account the experimentally observed dependence of wood joints' response to the input and response at an earlier time (known as memory). Hysteresis shapes produced by the proposed model compare favorably with common wood joints. The hysteresis model can produce a wide variety of hysteresis shapes, degradations, and pinching behavior to model a whole gamut of possible combinations of materials and joint configurations in wood construction. The nonstationary response statistics of a single-degree-of-freedom wood building subjected to white noise excitations are obtained by Monte Carlo simulation and stochastic equivalent linearization. The latter is shown to give a reasonably accurate prediction of the system's response statistics, which may be used in calculating design response values. The method of analysis is general and may be used to study the response of various kinds of structural systems, including multi-degree-of-freedom systems, as long as appropriate structural models are available and appropriate hysteresis model parameters for these systems are known.
Amin, M., and A. H.-S. Ang. 1968. Nonstationary stochastic model of earthquake motions. J. Eng. Mech. ASCE 94(EM2):559-583.nAng, A. H.-S. 1974. Probabilistic concepts in earthquake engineering. Pages 225-259 in W. D. Iwan, ed. Applied mechanics in earthquake engineering. ASME, New York, NY.nAtalik, T. S., and S. Utku. 1976. Stochastic linearization of multidegree of freedom nonlinear systems. Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn. 4:411-420.nAugusti, G., A. Baratta, and F. Casciati. 1984. Probabilistic methods in structural engineering. Chapman and Hall, New York, NY.nBaber, T., and M. N. Noori. 1986. Modeling general hysteresis behavior and random vibration application. J. Vibr., Acoust, Stress Reliab Design ASME, 108:411-420.nBaber, T., and Y.-K. Wen. 1981. Random vibration of hysteretic degrading systems. J. Eng. Mech. ASCE 107(EM6):1069-1089.nBouc, R. 1967. Forced vibration of mechanical systems with hysteresis, Abstract. Proc. Fourth Conference on Nonlinear Oscillation, Praque, Czechoslovakia.nBranstetter, L. J., G. D. Jeong, and J. T. P. Yao. 1988. Mathematical modelling of structural behaviour during earthquakes. Prob. Eng. Mech. 3(3): 130-145.nCeccotti A., Ed. 1989. Proc. Workshop on Structural Behavior of Timber Construction in Seismic Zones, Florence, Italy.nCeccotti A., and A. Vignoli. 1990. Engineered timber structures: An evaluation of their seismic behavior. Pages 946-953 in Proc. 1990 International Timber Engineering Conference, Tokyo, Japan.nCeccotti A., and A. Vignoli. 1991. Seismic behavior of low-rise portal frames. XV-1-22 in Proc. Workshop on Full-scale Behavior of Wood-Framed Buildings in Earthquakes and High Winds, Watford, UK.nChou, C. 1987. Modeling of nonlinear stiffness and non-viscous damping in nailed joints between wood and plywood. Ph.D. thesis, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR.nClough, R. W., and J. Penzien. 1993. Dynamics of structures, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, NY.nCorotis, R. B. 1982. Design of timber structures for natural hazards. Pages 327-352 in R. W. Meyer and R. M. Kellog, eds. Structural use of wood in adverse environments. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, NY.nDolan, J. D. 1989. The dynamic response of timber shear walls. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.nDowrick, D. J. 1986. Hysteresis loops for timber structures. Bull. NZ Natl. Soci. Earthquake Eng. 19(20):143-152.nEwing, R. D., T. J. Healey, and M. S. Agbabian. 1980. Seismic analysis of wood diaphragms in masonry buildings. Pages 253-276 in Proc. Workshop on Design of Horizontal Wood Diaphragms, Applied Technology Council, Berkeley, CA.nFoliente, G. C. 1993. Stochastic dynamic response of wood structural systems. Ph.D. dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.nFoliente, G. C. 1994. Modeling and analysis of timber structures under seismic loads. Pages 87-110 in G. C. Foliente, ed. Analysis, design, and testing of timber structures under seismic loads. Proceedings of a research needs workshop, University of California Forest Products Laboratory, Richmond, CA.nFoliente, G. C. 1995. Hysteresis modeling of wood joints and structural systems. J. Struct. Eng. ASCE 121(6):1013-1022.nFoliente, G. C., M. P. Singh, and M. N. Noori. 1996. Equivalent linearization of generally pinching hysteretic, degrading systems. Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn. (to appear).nGavrilović, P., and K. Gramatikov. 1991. Experimental and theoretical investigations of wooden trussframe structures under quasi-static and dynamic loads. XXVI-1-37 in Proc. Workshop on Full-scale Behavior of Wood-Framed Buildings in Earthquakes and High Winds, Watford, UK.nGupta, A. K., and P. J. Moss, eds. 1991. Proc. Workshop on Full-scale Behavior of Wood-Framed Buildings in Earthquakes and High Winds, Watford, UK.nHanson, D. 1990. Shear wall and diaphragm cyclic load testing, cyclic shear fastener testing, and panel durability performance testing of Weyerhaeuser sturdi-wood oriented strand board. Weyerhaeuser Company, Federal Way, WA.nKamiya, F. 1988. Nonlinear earthquake response analysis of sheathed wood walls by a computer-actuator online system. Pages 1:838-847 in Proc. 1988 International Conference on Timber Engineering, Seattle, WA.nKanai, K. 1967. Semi-empirical formula for the seismic characteristics of the ground. Bull. Earthquake Res. Inst. Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 35:308-325.nKareem, A. 1987. Wind effects on structures: A probabilistic viewpoint. Prob. Eng. Mech. 2(4):166-200.nKikuchi, F. 1994. Earthquake resistance of multistorey timber frame structures. Pages 1:205-214 in Proc. Pacific Timber Engineering Conference (PTEC '94), Gold Coast, Australia.nKivell, B. T., P. J. Moss, and A. J. Carr. 1981. Hysteretic modeling of moment resisting nailed timber joints. Bull. NZ Natl. Soc. Earthquake Eng. 14(4):233-245.nKomatsu, K., M. Harada, and T. Inoue. 1994. Development of glulam moment-resisting joints for multistorey limber buildings. Pages 2:36-43 in Proc. Pacific Timber Engineering Conference (PTEC '94), Gold Coast, Australia.nKozin, F. 1988. Autoregressive moving average models of earthquake records. Prob. Eng. Mech. 3(2):58-63.nLee. C.-S. 1987. A composite-beam finite element for seismic analysis of wood-framed buildings. Ph.D. thesis, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR.nMiyazawa, K. 1990. Study on nonlinear static and dynamic structural analysis of wooden wall-frame buildings subjected to horizontal force. Proc. Thirteenth Symposium on Computer Technology of Information, Systems and Applications, A.I.J., Japan.nNewmark, N., and B. Rosenblueth. 1971. Fundamentals of earthquake engineering. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, NY.nSakamoto, I., and Y. Ohashi. 1988. Seismic response and required lateral strength of wooden dwellings. Pages 2:243-247 in Proc. 1988 International Conference on Timber Engineering, Seattle, WA.nShinozuka, M., and G. Deodatis. 1988. Stochastic process models for earthquake ground motions. Prob. Eng. Mech. 3(3):114-123.nShinozuka, M., and Y. Sato. 1967. Simulation of nonstationary random processes. J. Eng. Mech. Div. ASCE 93(EM1): 11-40.nSimulescu, I., T. Mochio, and M. Shinozuka. 1989. Equivalent linearization method in nonlinear FEM. J. Eng. Mech. ASCE 115(3):475-492.nSoong, T. T., and M. Grigoriu. 1993. Random vibration of mechanical and structural systems. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.nSozen, M. A. 1974. Hysteresis in structural elements. Pages 63-98 in W. D. Iwan, ed. Applied mechanics in earthquake engineering. ASME, New York, NY.nSpanos, P. D. 1981. Stochastic linearization in structural dynamics. Appl. Mech. Revi. ASME 34(1):1-8.nStewart, W. G. 1987. The seismic design of plywood-sheathed shear walls. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch, NZ.nTajimi, H. 1960. A statistical method of determining the maximum response of a building structure during an earthquake. Pages 2:781-797 Vol. 2 in Proc. Second World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan.nTarabia, A. M., and R. Y. Itani. 1994. Seismic analysis of light-frame wood structures. Proc. Second International Workshop on Full-scale Behavior of Low-rise Buildings, Townsville, Australia. 15 pp.nUBC. 1993. Timber engineering software. Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.nWen, Y.-K. 1980. Equivalent linearization for hysteretic systems under random excitation. J. Appl. Mech. ASME 47:150-154.nWen, Y.-K. 1988. Equivalent linearization methods. Appendix I in L. J. Branstetter, L. J., G. D. Jeong, and J. T. P. Yao, 1988, Mathematical modelling of structural behaviour during earthquakes. Prob. Eng. Mech. 3(3): 130-145.nWhale, L. R. J. 1988. Deformation characteristics of nailed or bolted timber joints subjected to irregular short or medium term lateral loading. Ph.D. thesis, Polytechnic of the South Bank, CNAA, UK.nYasumura, M. 1990. Seismic behavior of arched frames and braced frames. Pages 3:863-870 in Proc. 1990 International Timber Engineering Conference, Tokyo, Japan.nYasumura, M., I. Nishiyama, T. Murota, and N. Yamaguchi. 1988. Experiments on a three-storied wooden frame building subjected to horizontal load. Pages 2:262-275 in Proc. 1988 International Conference on Timber Engineering, Seattle, WA.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.