Black Stain of Western Red Cedar (<i>Thuja Plicata</i> Donn) By <i>Aureobasidium Pullulans:</i> The Role of Weathering
Keywords:<i>Aureobasidium pullulans</i>, black stain, extractive resistance, weathering, western red cedar (<i>Thuja plicata</i>)
AbstractWestern red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn) is valued for its natural durability conferred by fungicidal extractive chemicals. However, weathered surfaces of T. plicata products are susceptible to black stain caused by fungi such as Aureobasidium pullulans. The effect of weathering on extractive concentrations at the wood surface was characterized and correlated with the ability of this fungal species to colonize weathered surfaces. UV plus water spray treatments substantially reduced extractives but did not promote fungal colonization. In contrast, UV-only treatments reduced extractive contents less than the other treatments but stimulated fungal colonization. A. pullulans exhibited high tolerance to the tropolone β-thujaplicin in vitro; thus loss in tropolone content may not be required for colonization. Water spray most likely washed away products of lignin photo-degradation, which resulted in decreased fungal colonization.
Bardage, S. L., and J. Bjurman. 1998. Isolation of an Aureobasidium pullulans polysaccharide that promotes adhesion of blastospores to water-borne paints. Can. J. Microbiol.44:954-958.nBarton, G. F., and B. F. MacDonald. 1971. The chemistry and utilization of western redcedar. Department of Fisheries and Forestry Canadian Forestry Service (Pub. No. 1023).nBourbonnais, R., and M. G. Paice. 1987. Oxidation and reduction of lignin-related aromatic compounds by Aureobasidium pullulans.Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.26: 164-169.nChang, H. T., T. F. Yeh, and S. T. Chang. 2002. Comparisons of chemical characteristics variation for photodegraded softwood and hardwood with/without polyurethane clear coating. Polymer Degradation and Stability77:129-135.nChedgy, R. J., C. R. Daniels, P. I. Morris, and C. Breuil. 2005. Black stain of western red cedar by Aureobasidium pullulans and its relationship with tropolone depletion. International Research Group on Wood Preservation document No. IRG/WP 05-10564.nChedgy, R. J., C. R. Daniels, J. Kadla, and C. Breuil. 2007. Screening fungi tolerant to western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn) extractives, Part 1: Mild extraction by ultrasonication and quantification of extractives by reverse phase HPLC. Holzforschung. In press.nCoombs, R. W., and T. J. Trust. 1973. The effect of light on the antibacterial activity of β-thujaplicin. Can. J. Microbiol.19:1177-1180.nCrestini, C., and M. D. Auria. 1996. Photodegradation of lignin: The role of singlet oxygen. J. Photochem. and Photobiol. A: Chemistry101:69-73.nDaniels, C. R., and J. H. Russell. 2007. Analysis of western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn) heartwood components by HPLC as a possible screening tool for trees with enhanced natural durability. J. Chromatog. Sci. In press.nDickinson D. J. 1972. Disfigurement of decorative timbers by blue stain fungi. Int. Pest Control14:21-25.nHon, D. N. S. 1991. Wood and cellulosic chemistry. Shiraishi N, Marcel Dekker, Inc: New York, N. Y., 1020 pp.nHoog de, G. S., and N. A. Yurlova. 1994. Conidiogenesis, nutritional physiology and taxonomy of Aureobasidium and Hormonema.Antonie van Leeuwenhoek65:41-54.nInamori, Y., Y. Sakagami, Y. Morita, M. Shibata, M. Sugiura, Y. Kumeda, T. Okabe, H. Tsujibo, and K. Ishida. 2000. Antifungal activity of hinokitiol-related compounds on wood-rotting fungi and their insecticidal activities. Biol. Pharm. Bull.23:995-997.nJakubowsky, J. A., J. Gyris, and S. L. Simpson. 1983. Microbiology of modern coating systems. J. Coat. Technol.55:49-53.nJohnson, E. L., and A. J. Cserjesi. 1980. Weathering effect on thujaplicin concentration in western redcedar shakes. Foresi. Prod. J.30:52-53.nKawamura, C., T. Tsujimoto, and T. Tsuge. 1999. Targeted disruption of a melanin biosynthesis gene affects conidial development and UV tolerance in the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata.Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact.12:59-63.nLim, Y. W., J. J. Kim, R. J. Chedgy, P. I. Morris, and C. Breuil. 2005. Fungal diversity from western red cedar fences and their resistance to β-thujaplicin. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek87:109-117.nLim, Y. W., J. J. Kim, Chedgy, R. J.; S. Amirthalingam, and C. Breuil. 2007. Screening fungi tolerant to western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn) extractives, Part 2: Development of a feeder strip assay. Holzforschung. In press.nMorita, Y., E. Matsumura, T. Okabe, T. Fukui, M. Shibata, M. Sugiura, T. Ohe, N. Ishida, and Y. Inamori. 2004. Biological activity of β-dolabrin, γ-thujaplicin, and 4-acetyltropolone, hinokitol-related compounds. Biol. Pharm. Bull.27:1666-1669.nO'Niel, T. B. 1986. Succession and interrelationships of microorganisms on painted surfaces. J. Coat. Technol.58:51-56.nRay, M. J., D. J. Dickinson, and M. Buck. 2004. Aureobasidium or Hormonema? A genetic approach. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation document No: IRG/WP 04-10529.nSchmidt, O., and U. Moreth. 2002. Data bank of rDNA-ITS sequences from building-rot fungi for their identification. Wood Sci. Technol.36:429-433.nSchoeman, M., and D. Dickinson. 1997. Growth of Aureobasidium pullulans on lignin breakdown products at weathered wood surfaces. Mycologist11:168-172.nSharpe, P. R., and D. J. Dickinson. 1992a. Blue stain in service on wood surface coatings Part 1: The nutritional requirements of Aureobasidium pullulans. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation document No: IRG/WP/1556-92.nSharpe, P. R., and D. J. Dickinson. 1992b. Blue stain in service on wood surface coatings part 2; The ability of Aureobasidium pullulans to penetrate wood surface coatings. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation document No. IRG/WP/1557-92.nSharpe, P. R., and D. J. Dickinson. 1993. Blue stain in service on wood surface coatings. Part 3: The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans compared to other fungi commonly isolated from wood surface coating. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation document No: IRG/WP/93-10035.nShibata, H., T. Nagamine, Y. Wang, and T. Ishikawa. 2003. Generation of reactive oxygen species from hinokitol under near-UV irradiation. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.67:1996-1998.nShirikawa, M. A., C. C. Gaylarde, P.M. Gaylarde, V. John, and W. Gambale. 2002. Fungal colonization and succession on newly painted buildings and the effect of biocide. FEMS Microbiology Ecology39:165-173.nTakeo, K., and G. S. de Hoog. 1991. Karyogamy and hyphal characters as taxanomic criteria in ascomycetous black yeasts and related fungi. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek60:35-42.nTukey, J. W. 1949. Comparing individual means in the analysis of variance. Biometrics5:99-114.nWhite, T. J., T. D. Bruns, S.B. Lee, and J. W. Taylor. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. Pages 315-322 in M. A. Innis, D. H. Gelfand, J. J. Sninisky, and T. J. White, eds. PCR Protocols: Guide Methods Appl. 1990. Academic, San Diego, CA.nYurlova, N. A., G. S. Hoog de, and A. H. G. Gerrits van den Ende. 1999. Taxonomy of Aureobasidium and Allied Genera. Studies in Mycology43:63-69.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.