The Response of Visible/Near Infrared Absorbance to Wood-Staining Fungi


  • Brian K. Via
  • Lori G. Eckhardt
  • Chi-Leung So
  • Todd F. Shupe
  • Leslie H. Groom
  • Michael Stine


Blue stain, fungus, <i>Leptographium</i>, melanin, modeling, NIR, <i>Ophiostoma</i>, pine, sapstain, spectra


The influence of blue-stain fungi [Ophiostoma minus (Hedgcock) H. and P. Sydow and Leptographium serpens (Goid.) Siemaszko] on absorbance at the visible and near infrared wavelengths was investigated. Forty trees were sampled at breast height from longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). One half of each increment core was inoculated with one of two fungi treatments while the other half served as a control. Visible and near infrared spectra were acquired between rings 3-40 for the stained and control-clear wood samples (n = 304). Absorbance was greater for the stained than the control wood at wavelengths between 464 to 1334 nm. Statistical techniques were applied to the NIR data to determine which wavelengths, and their corresponding chemical assignments, were most affected by the fungi. First and 2nd derivative pretreatments to the original spectra resulted in some blue-stain sensitive wavelengths throughout the 350 to 2500 nm range, some of which are associated with nitrogen in the melanin present in blue stain. However, for the 2nd derivative pretreatment, the stained wood exhibited a different signal to noise ratio than the control wood, and thus the pretreatment method should be used with vigilance. For the raw, 1st, and 2nd derivatives, the absorbance of L. serpens (n = 164) significantly differed from O. minus (n = 140) between 424-554 nm. The results of this study are important because the absorbance at visible and NIR wavelengths may be used to classify stained wood.


Eckhardt, L. G., R. A. Goyer, K.D. Klepzig, and J. P. Jones. 2004. Interactions of Hylastes species (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) with Leptographium species associated with loblolly pine decline. J. Econ. Entomol.97:468-474.nFleet, C., C. Breuil, and A. Uzunovic. 2001. Nutrient consumption and pigmentation of deep and surface colonizing sapstaining fungi in Pinus contorta.Holzforschung55:340-346.nGao, Y., C. Breuil, and T. Chen. 1994. Utilization of triglycerides, fatty acids and resin acids in lodgepole pine wood by a sapstaining fungus Ophiostoma piceae.Mater. Organ.28:105-118.nHiukka, R. 1998. A multivariate approach to the analysis of pine needle samples using NIR. Chemometr. Intell. Lab.44:395-401.nHodges, J. D., and P. L. Lorio. 1969. Carbohydrate and nitrogen fractions of the inner bark of loblolly pines under moisture stress. Can. J. Bot.47:1651-1657.nHoffmeyer, P., and J. G. Pedersen. 1995. Evaluation of density and strength of Norway spruce by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Holz. Roh-Werkst.53:165-170.nJacobs, K., and M. J. Wingfield. 2001. Leptographium species: Tree pathogens, insect associates and agents of blue-stain. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.nJacobs, K., M. J. Wingfield, N. V. Pashenova, and V. P. Vetrova. 2000. A new Leptographium species from Russia. Mycol. Res.104:1524-1529.nLiese, W. 1970. Ultrastructural aspects of woody tissue disintegration. Ann. Rev Phytopathol.8:231-57.nLikens, G. E., and F. H. Bormann. 1970. Chemical analysis of plant tissues from the Hubbard Brook ecosystem in New Hampshire. Yale Univ. Bulletin No. 79. New Haven, CT. 24 pp.nMcLellan, T. M., J. D. Aber, and M. E. Martin. 1991a. Determination of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose content of decomposing leaf material by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Can. J. For. Res.21:1684-1688.nMcLellan, T. M., M.E. Martin, J.D. Aber, J.M. Melillo, K. J. Nadelhoffer, and B. Dewey. 1991b. Comparison of wet chemistry and near-infrared reflectance measurements of carbon-fraction chemistry and nitrogen concentration of forest foliage. Can. J. For. Res.21:1689-1693.nOsborne, B. G., and T. Fearn. 1986. Near infrared spectroscopy in food analysis. Longman Scientific & Technical, Essex, England.nOtt, R. L. 1993. An introduction to statistical methods and data analysis. Wadsworth, Inc., Belmont, CA.nRiley, M. R., and L. C. Cánaves. 2002. FT-NIR spectroscopic analysis of nitrogen in cotton leaves. Appl. Spectrosc.56:1484-1489.nSchimleck, L. R., P. J. Wright, A. J. Michell, and A. F. A Wallis. 1997. Near-infrared spectra and chemical compositions of E-globulus and E-nitens plantation woods. Appita J.50:40-46.nSolheim, H., P. Krokene, and B. Långström. 2001. Effects of growth and virulence of associated blue-stain fungi on host colonization behaviour of the pine shoot beetles Tomicus minor and T. piniperda.Plant Pathol.50:111-116.nUnscrambler software version 7.5. 1999. Vika, Norway.nVia, B. K., T. F. Shupe, L.H. Groom, and M. Stine, C. L. So. 2003. Multivariate modeling of density, strength, and stiffness from near infrared spectra for mature, juvenile, and pith wood of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris). J. Near Infrared Spec.11:365-378.nViiri, H., P. Niemelä, V. Kitunen, and E. Annila. 2001a. Soluble carbohydrates, radial growth and vigour of fertilized Norway spruce after inoculation with blue-stain fungus, Ceratocystis polonica.Trees15:327-334.nViiri, H., E. Annila, V. Kitunen, and P. Niemelä. 2001b. Induced responses in stilbenes and terpenes in fertilized Norway spruce after inoculation with blue-stain fungus, Ceratocystis polonica.Trees15:112-122.nViitanen, H. A. 1997. Modeling the time factor in the development of mould fungi—the effect of critical humidity and temperature conditions on pine and spruce sapwood. Holzforschung51:6-14.nViitanen, H. A., and J. Bjurman. 1995. Mold growth on wood under fluctuating humidity conditions. Mater. Organismen29: 27-46.nWang, Q. 1994. Growth on mould and stain fungi on woodbased boards in relation to temperature and relative humidity. Mater. Organismen28:81-103.nWang, Z., T. Chen, Y. Gao, C. Breuil, and Y. Hiratsuka. 1995. Biological degradation of resin acids in wood chips by wood-inhabiting fungi. Appl. Environ. Microb.61: 222-225.nWhite-McDougall, W. J., R. A. Blanchette, and R. L. Farrell. 1998. Biological control of blue stain fungi on Populus tremuloides using selected Ophiostoma isolates. Holzforschung52:234-240.nWood, D. L. 1982. The role of pheromones, kairomones, and allomones in the host selection and colonization behavior of bark beetles. Ann. Rev. Entomol.27:411-446.nWülfert, F., W. T. Kok, O. E. de Noord, and A. K. Smilde. 2000. Linear techniques to correct for temperature-induced spectral variation in multivariate calibration. Chemometr. Intell. Lab.51:189-200.nZhou, Q., and J. Wang. 2003. Leaf and spike reflectance spectra of rice with contrasting nitrogen supplemental levels. Int. J. Remote Sensing24:1587-1593.nZink, P., and D. Fengel. 1988. Studies on the colouring matter of blue-stain fungi. Part 1. General characterization and the associated compounds. Holzforschung42: 217-220.nZink, P., and D. Fengel. 1990. Studies on the colouring matter of blue-stain fungi. Part 3. Spectroscopic studies on fungal and synthetic melanins. Holzforschung44:163-168.nZulpa, G., Zaccaro, M. C., Boccazzi, F., Parada, J. L., Storni, M. 2003. Bioactivity of intra and extracellular substances from cianobacteria and lactic acid bacteria on "Wood blue stain" fungi. Biol. Control27:345-348.n






Research Contributions