Transition from Juvenile to Mature Wood in Black Spruce (<i>Picea Mariana</i> (Mill.) B.S.P.)


  • Ahmed Koubaa
  • Nathalie Isabel
  • Shu Yin Zhang
  • Jean Beaulieu
  • Jean Bousquet


Black spruce, juvenile wood, mature wood, transition, ring density, ring width


The radial patterns of several intra-ring traits in increment cores of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) plantation trees were modeled with polynomials to characterize their trends and to estimate the transition age from juvenile to mature wood. Wood density, ring width, latewood density, and latewood proportion were obtained by X-ray densitometry. Average radial trends were similar to those reported earlier in Picea species. For all traits measured, significant differences were found among diameter classes. Thus, the juvenile wood production period varies with growth rate. In addition, transition age for a given diameter class varies, depending on trait. Hence, transition age needs to be defined more precisely, basing it on biological processes.


Abdel-Gadir, A. Y., and R. L. Krahmer. 1993a. Estimating the age of demarcation of juvenile and mature wood in Douglas-fir. Wood Fiber Sci. 25(3):243-249.nAbdel-Gadir, A. Y., and R. L. Krahmer. 1993b. Genetic variation in the age of demarcation between juvenile and mature wood in Douglas-fir. Wood Fiber Sci. 25(4):384-394.nBeaulieu, J., and A. Corriveau. 1985. Variabilité de la densité du bois et de la production des provenances d'épinette blanche, 20 ans après plantation. Can. J. For. Res. 15:833-838.nBendtsen, B. A. 1978. Properties of wood from improved and intensively managed trees. Forest Prod. J. 28(10):61-72.nBendtsen, B. A., and J. Senft. 1986. Mechanical and anatomical properties in individual growth rings of plantation-grown eastern cottonwood and loblolly pine. Wood Fiber Sci. 18(1):23-38.nBlouin, D., J. Beaulieu, G. Daoust, and J. Poliquin. 1994. Wood quality of Norway spruce grown in plantations in Quebec. Wood Fiber Sci. 26(3):342-353.nClark, A., and J. R. Saucier. 1989. Influence of initial planting density, geographic location, and species on juvenile wood formation in southern pine. Forest Prod. J. 39(7/8):42-48.nCorriveau, A., J. Beaulieu, F. Mothe, J. Poliquin, and J. Doucet. 1990. Densité et largeur des cernes des populations d'épinette blanche de la région forestière des Grands Lacs et du Saint-Laurent. Can. J. For. Res. 20(2):121-129.nDi Lucca, C. M. 1987. Juvenile-mature wood transition in second-growth coastal Douglas-fir. M.S. Thesis, Department of Forestry, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.nGartner, B. L., E. M. North, G. R. Johnson, and R. Singleton. 2002. Effects of live crown on vertical patterns of wood density and growth in Douglas-fir. Can. J. For. Res. 32(3):439-447.nHerman, M., P. Dutilleul, and T. Avella-Shaw. 1998. Growth rate effects on temporal trajectories of ring width, wood density, and mean tracheid length in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Wood Fiber Sci. 30(1):6-17.nHodge, G. R., and R. C. Purnell. 1993. Genetic parameter estimates for wood density, transition age, and radial growth in slash pine. Can. J. For. Res. 23:1881-1891.nJohnston, J. 1984. Econometric Methods. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY.nJozsa, L. A., J. E. Richards, and S. G. Johnson. 1987. Calibration of Forintek's Direct Reading X-Ray Densitometer. Research Report CFS No. 36a. Forintek Canada Corp., Vancouver, BC.nKennedy, R. W. 1961. Variation and periodicity of summerwood in some second-growth Douglas-fir. Tappi 44(3):161-165.nKoubaa, A., S. Y. Zhang, N. Isabel, J. Beaulieu, and J. Bousquet. 2000. Phenotypic correlations between juvenile-mature wood density and growth in black spruce. Wood Fiber Sci. 32(1):61-67.nKoubaa, A., S. Y. Zhang, N. Isabel, J. Beaulieu, and S. Makni. 2002. Defining the transition from earlywood to latewood in black spruce based on intra-ring wood density profiles from X-ray densitometry. Ann. For. Sci. 59(5/6):511-518.nKucéra, B. 1994. A hypothesis relating current annual height increment to juvenile wood formation. Wood Fiber Sci. 26(2):152-167.nLarson, P. R. 1960. A physiological consideration of the springwood summerwood transition in red pine. For. Sci. 6(1):110-122.nLarson, P. R. 1962. A biological approach to wood quality. Tappi 45(6):443-448.nLarson, P. R. 1969. Wood formation and the concept of wood quality. Bull. 74, Yale University, School of Forestry, New Haven, CT. 54 pp.nLittell, R. C., G. E. Milliken, W. W. Stroup, and R. D. Wolfinger. 1996. SAS system for MIXED models. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.nLittle, E. L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States Trees Agric. Handb. USDA, Forest Serv., Washington, DC. 541 pp.nLoo, J. A., C. G. Tauer, and R. W. McNew. 1985. Genetic variation in the time of transition from juvenile to mature wood in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). Silvae Genet. 34(1):14-19.nOlesen, P. O. 1977. The variation of the basic density level and tracheid width within the juvenile and mature wood of Norway spruce. For. Tree Improv. No. 12. Arbor. Horsholm DSR Forlag, Köbenhavn, Denmark.nOlesen, P. O. 1982. The interrelation between basic density and ring width of Norway spruce. The Danish For. Exp. Sta. Rep. 4:341-359.nPanshin, A. J., and C. de Zeeuw. 1980. Textbook of Wood Technology. 4th ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, NY.nParker, M. L., R. D. Bruce, and L. A. Jozsa. 1980. X-Ray densitometry of wood at the W.F.P.L. Technical Report No. 10. Forintek Canada Corp., Vancouver, B.C.nSAS Institute, Inc. 1997. SAS/STAT® Software: Changes and Enhancements through Release 6.12. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.nSauter, U. H., R. Mutz, and B. David Munro. 1999. Determining juvenile-mature wood transition in scots pine using latewood density. Wood Fiber Sci. 31(4):416-425.nSzymanski, M. B., and C. G. Tauer. 1991. Loblolly pine provenance variation in age of transition from juvenile to mature wood specific gravity. For. Sci. 37(1):160-174.nTasissa, G., and H. E. Burkhart. 1998. Juvenile-mature wood demarcation in loblolly pine trees. Wood Fiber Sci. 30(2):119-127.nVargas-Hernandez, J., and W. T. Adams. 1992. Age-age correlations and early selection for wood density in young coastal Douglas-fir. For. Sci. 38(2):467-478.nYang, K.-C., and C. A. Benson. 1997. Formation, distribution and its criteria for determining the juvenile-mature wood transition zone. Pages IX-7 in Proc. CTIA/IUFRO International Wood Quality Workshop; 1997 August 18-22, Quebec, PQ.nZobel, B. J. 1984. The changing quality of the world wood supply. Wood Sci. Technol. 18(1):1-17.nZobel, B. J. 1997. Genetics of wood. An overview. Pages IV-3-IV-9 in Proc. CTIA/IUFRO International Wood Quality Workshop; 1997 August 18-22, Quebec, PQ.nZobel, B. J., and J. R. Sprague. 1998. Juvenile wood in forest trees. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany. 300 pp.nZobel, B. J., and J. P. van Buijtenen. 1989. Wood variation. Its causes and control. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany. 363 pp.nVilleneuve, M., E. K. Morgenstern, and L. P. Sebastian. 1987. Variation patterns and relationships of wood density in families of jack pine and black spruce. Can. J. For. Res. 17:1219-1222.nWang, E. I. C., and M. M. Micko. 1983. Wood quality of white spruce from north central Alberta. Can. J. For. Res. 14(2):181-185.nYang, K.-C. 1994. Impact of spacing on width and basal area of juvenile and mature wood in Picea mariana and Picea glauca.Wood Fiber Sci. 26(4):479-488.n






Research Contributions