Selected Volatile Organic Compound Emissions and Performance of Oriented Strandboard from Extracted Southern Pine
Keywords:Hemicelluloses, hot water extraction, weight loss, physical and mechanical properties, volatile organic compound, VOC
AbstractThe impact of a hot water extraction procedure on select volatile organic compound emissions during pressing, as well as on properties of oriented strandboard (OSB) was evaluated. Southern pine strands were extracted with hot water using a rotating digester at 160°C for 22.9 or 53.6 min. Weight loss for the two extraction conditions was 6.3 ± 0.1% (short time) and 9.3 ± 0.9% (long time). The extract contained a mixture of hemicelluloses, acetic acid, and lignin. OSB panels were manufactured both with and without adhesive. The emissions (phenol, methanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde) without adhesive present decreased from 38.2 to 24.2 mg/kg (oven-dry wood) as a result of the high severity factor (HSF) extraction. When adhesive was used, emissions totaled 22.1, 17.0, and 15.6 mg/kg (oven-dry wood) for control, low severity factor, and HSF, respectively. Water sorption and thickness swell were significantly reduced in panels made from extracted strands. Flexural modulus of elasticity of extracted panels exhibited significant increases in both dry and wet conditions. The flexural modulus of rupture and internal bond were slightly reduced in the dry condition as weight loss increased. The extraction procedure shows promise for improving a variety of properties of OSB, including performance, reduced environmental impact, and generation of a valuable chemical feedstock byproduct.
APA (2001) Performance standard and qualification policy for structural-use panels. APA standard PRP-108. APA—The Engineered Wood Association, Tacoma, WA.nASTM (2006) D1037-06A. Test methods for evaluating properties of wood-base fiber and particle panel materials. American Society for Testing and Material, West Conshohocken, PA.nBarry A, Corneau D (1999) Volatile organic chemicals emissions from OSB as a function of processing parameters. Holzforschung 53(2):441-446.nBorrega M, Kärenlampi P (2008) Effect of relative humidity on thermal degradation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) wood. J Wood Sci 54(4):323-328.nBowyer JL, Shmulsky R, Haygreen JG (2007) Forest products and wood science: An introduction. 5th ed. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA. 576 pp.nCarlson FE, Phillips EK, Tenhaeff SC, Detlefsen WD (1995) A study of formaldehyde and other organic emissions from pressing of laboratory oriented strandboard. Forest Prod J 45(3):71-77.nFengel D, Wegener G (1984) Wood: Chemistry, ultrastructure, reaction. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, Germany. 613 pp.nGu H, Wang S, Neimsuwan T, Wang S (2005) Comparison study of thickness swell performance of commercial oriented strandboard flooring products. Forest Prod J 55(12): 239-245.nHill C (2006) Wood modification: Chemical, thermal, and other processes. John Wiley & Sons Series in Renewable Resources, Hoboken, NJ. 239 pp.nJiang T, Gardner DJ, Baumann MGD (2002) Volatile organic compound emissions arising from the hot-pressing of mixed-hardwood particleboard. Forest Prod J 52(11/12):66-77.nKaar WE, Cool LG, Merriman MM, Brink DL (1991) The complete analysis of wood polysaccharides using HPLC. J Wood Chem Technol 11(4):447-463.nLarsen FS, McClennen WH, Deng XX, Silcox GD (1992) Hydrocarbon and formaldehyde emission from the combustion of pulverized wood waste. Combust Sci Technol 85(1):259-269.nLundqvist J, Jacobs A, Palm M, Zacchi G, Dahlman O, Stålbrand H (2003) Characterization of galactoglucomannan extracted from spruce (Picea abies) by heat-fractionation at different conditions. Carbohydr Polym 51(2):203-211.nMosier N, Ladisch C, Ladisch M (2002) Characterization of acid catalytic domains for cellulose hydrolysis and glucose degradation. Biotechnol Bioeng 79(6):610-618.nNCASI (1989) A summary of gaseous emission measurement data for reconstituted building board plants. Special Report No. 89-05, Research Triangle Park, NC. National Council for Air and Stream Improvement, Inc. 49 pp.nNCASI (1999) Volatile organic compound emissions from wood products manufacturing facilities, Part V—Oriented strandboard. Technical Bulletin No. 0772. Research Triangle Park, NC. National Council for Air and Stream Improvement, Inc., New York, NY. 98 pp.nOverend RP, Chornet E (1987) Fractionation of lignocellulosic by steam-aqueous pretreatments. Philos T R Soc A 321(1561):523-536.nParedes JJ, Jara R, van Heiningen A, Shaler MS (2008) Influence of hemicellulose extraction on physical and mechanical behavior of OSB. Forest Prod J 58(12): 56-62.nParedes JJ, Mills R, Shaler MS, Gardner DJ, van Heiningen A (2009) Surface characterization of red maple strands after hot water extraction. Wood Fiber Sci 41(1):38-50.nPétrissans M, Géradin P, El-Bakali I, Seraj M (2003) Wettability of heat-treated wood. Holzforschung 57(3):301-307.nRice R, Erich S (2008) Comparative DOC estimates from the heartwood and sapwood of five hardwoods. Drying Technol 26(9):1145-1149.nSchneider A, Rusche H (1973) Sorption behaviour of beech and spruce wood after heat treatment in air and in vacuum. Holz Roh Werkst 31(8):313-319.nSjöström E (1993) Wood chemistry: Fundamentals and applications. 2nd ed. Laboratory of Wood Chemistry, Forest Products Department, Helsinki Univ of Techn, Espoo, Finland. 223 pp.nWang W, Gardner DJ (1999) Investigation of volatile organic compound press emissions during particleboard production. Part 1. UF-bonded southern pine. Forest Prod J 49(3):65-72.nWinistorfer PM, Moschler WW, Wang S, DePaula E, Bledsoe BL (2000) Fundamentals of vertical density profile formation in wood composites. Part I. In-situ density measurement of the consolidation process. Wood Fiber Sci 32(2):209-219.nYoon SH, Macewan K, van Heinigen A (2006) Pre-extraction of southern pine chips with hot water followed by kraft cooking. Page 157 in TAPPI Engineering, Pulping, and Environmental Conference, 5 November 2006, Atlanta, GA.nZhang Y, Jin J, Wang S (2007) Effects of resin and wax on the water uptake behavior of wood strands. Wood Fiber Sci 39(2):271-278.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.