Effect of Cultural Treatment and Wood-type On Some Physical Properties of Longleaf and Slash Pine Wood


  • Elvin T. Choong
  • Peter J. Fogg
  • Eugene Shoulders


Longleaf pine, slash pine, fertilization, thinning, moisture content, shrinkage, latewood percentage, rings per inch, specific gravity, tree height, wood-type


Wood was studied from relatively mature longleaf and slash pine trees that had been growing under experimental treatments including cultivation, two levels of thinning, and four levels of fertilization in various combinations. From discs taken at five heights and separated into three wood-types, green moisture content, radial shrinkage, tangential shrinkage, volumetric shrinkage, latewood percentage, number of rings per inch, and specific gravity were determined. In longleaf pine, there were indications of treatment effect on latewood percentage and the number of rings per inch, with the more intensive treatments generally leading to fewer rings and higher amounts of latewood. In slash pine, a similar trend was found with these two variables. The species exhibited an almost identical trend in the interrelationships among properties. Green moisture content was negatively correlated with specific gravity and moisture content of the innerwood and middlewood increased with height. Shrinkage was found to be negatively correlated with height and positively correlated with specific gravity, except in the innerwood. Latewood percentage accounted for much of the variation in specific gravity in all wood-types. In the outerwood only, there was a positive but weak correlation of number of rings with specific gravity.


Beckwith, J. R., III, and M. Reines. 1978. Aerial fertilization increases volume and weight of planted loblolly pine. S. J. Appl. Forestry 2(4): 118-120.nChoong, E. T. 1969a. Effect of extractives on shrinkage and other hygroscopic properties of ten southern pine woods. Wood Fiber 1:124-133.nChoong, E. T. 1969b. Moisture and the wood of the southern pines. Forest Prod. J. 19(2):30-36.nGoggans, J. F. 1962. The correlation, variation, and inheritance of wood properties in loblolly pine. No. Carolina Sch. Forest. Tech. Rep. 14. 35 pp.nKoch, P. 1972. Utilization of the southern pines. Vol. I. Ag. Handbook 420, USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Exp. Sta. 734 pp.nMcMillin, C. W. 1968. Chemical composition of loblolly pine wood as related to specific gravity, growth rate, and distance from pith. Wood Sci. Technol. 2:233-240.nShoulders, E. 1967. Growth of slash and longleaf pines after cultivation, fertilization, and thinning. USDA Forest Service, Res. Note SO-59, Southern Forest Exp. Sta., New Orleans, LA. 3 pp.nShoulders, E. 1968. Fertilization increases longleaf and slash pine flower and cone crops in Louisiana. J. For. 66(33): 193-197.nSmith, D. M. 1954. Maximum moisture content method for determining specific gravity of small wood samples. USDA For. Prod. Lab. Rep. No. 2014.nStamm, A. J. 1964. Wood and cellulose science. The Ronald Press Co., New York. 549 pp.nStamm, A. J, and W. K. Loughborough. 1942. Variation in shrinking and swelling of wood. Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. 63:379-386.nVan Buijtenen, J. P., B. J. Zobel, and P. N. Jorenson. 1961. Variation of some wood and pulp properties in an even aged loblolly pine stand. TAPPI 44(2):141-144.nYao, J. 1969. Shrinkage properties of second-growth southern yellow pine. Wood Sci. Technol. 3: 25-39.nYao, J. 1970. Influence of growth rate on specific gravity and other selected properties of loblolly pine. Wood Sci. Technol. 4:163-175.nZobel, B., M. Matthias, J. H. Roberts, and R. C. Kellison. 1968. Moisture content of southern pine trees. No. Carolina Sch. Forest. Tech. Rep. 37. 44 pp.n






Research Contributions