Characterization and Bioremediation of Birch Condensate


  • Wanli Ma
  • D. Pascal Kamdem
  • Paul Loconto
  • Yanlyang Pan
  • Douglas Gage
  • Benjamin E. Dawson-Andoh


Birch (<i>Betula papyrifera</i> Marsh), condensate, extractives, fungi treatment, <i>Phanerochaete chrysosporium</i>, GC-MS, FAB-MS, lipids, triglycerides


Birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh) condensate collected from a veneer plant in Michigan was analyzed for its major chemical constituents. This condensate contained carbohydrates and lipids. In the lipid fractions, triglycerides were the most abundant component (35-40%), followed by phenolic compounds (30%) and waxes (25-30%). Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB) MS were used to identify 14 lipid compounds. A white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium [Burdsall-lombard, 5176, HHB-6251], was tested as a means for the bio-remediation of the condensate. P. chrysosporium reduced the total organic content (TOC) of the condensate from 350 ppm to 22 ppm and the color intensity from 0.614 to 0.355 absorbance units, after 2 weeks incubation in a liquid medium containing yeast and peptonc at pH 5.


American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). 1991. Catalogue of filamentous fungi. 18th ed. Edited by S. C. Jong and M. J. Edwards. Rockville, MD.nBallard, R. G., M. A. Walsh, and W. E. Cole. 1982. Blue stain fungi in xylem of lodgepole pine: A light-microscope study on extent of hyphal distribution. Can. J. Bot. 60:2334-2341.nChen, T., C. Breuil, S. Carriere, and J. V. Hatton. 1994. Solid-phase extraction can rapidly separate lipid classes from acetone extracts of wood and pulp. Tappi. 77(3): 235-240.nDubois, M., K. A. Gilles, J. K. Hamilton, P. A. Rebers, and Fred Smith. 1956. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal. Chem. 28(3):350-356.nEdhborg, A. 1956. Studies on a water-soluble material from the Masonite Process. Stockholm, Sweden.nHammel, K. E., W. Z. Gai, B. Green, and M. A. Moen. 1992. Oxidative degradation of phenantrene by the ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58(6):1832-1838.nLeach, L. M., and A. Thakore. 1975. Isolation and identification of constituents toxic to juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in caustic extraction from kraft pulpmill bleach plants. Water Qual. Res. J. Can. 32:1249-1252.nMarton, J., A. M. Stern, and T. Marton. 1969. Decolorization of kraft black liquor with Polyporus versicolor, a white rot fungus. Tappi. 52(10):1975-1981.nMorrow, C. A., and W. M. Sandstrom. 1935. Biochemical laboratory methods. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.nRice, W., J. L. Howe, R. S. Boone, and J. L. Tschernitz. 1994. A survey of firms kiln-drying lumber in the United States: Volume, species, kiln capacity, equipment, and procedures. Proc. Profitable Solutions for Quality Drying of Softwoods and Hardwoods. May 1994, Forest Products Society, Madison, WI.nSaranpaa, P., and H. Nyberg. 1987. Lipids and sterols of Pinus sylvestris L. sapwood and heartwood. Trees 1:82-87.nServizi, J. A., D. W. Martens, R. W. Gordon, J. A. Kutney, M. Singn, E. Dimitiadis, G. M. Hewtt, P. J. Salisbury, and L. S. L. Choi. 1986. Microbiological detoxification of resin acids. Water Poll. Res. J. Canada. 21:119-129.nSilverstein, R. M., G. C. Bassler, and T. C. Morill. 1981. Spectrometric identification of organic compounds. 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 442 pp.nStalker, I. N. 1993. Disposal of treated wood after service. Pages 159-174 in Proc. Canadian Wood-Preservers Assoc. Vancouver, B.C., Canada.nTheander, O., J. Bjurman, and J. B. Boutelje. 1993. Increase in the content of low molecular carbohydrates at the surface during drying and correlations with nitrogen content, yellowing and mold growth. Wood Sci. Technol. 27:381-389.n






Research Contributions