• Alexander Dillard Hampton University
  • Tu X Ho Oregon State University
  • Aaryan Indra
  • Arijit Sinha Oregon State University


First-order kinetics, rate of degradation, time-temperature dependence, connections


Design of connections in mass timber are critical. Mass plywood panels (MPP) are a relatively new mass timber product, therefore, only a few studies characterizing their mechanical and connection properties exist. Dowel bearing strength is a critical parameter required in connection design regardless of the complexity of the connection. This study investigated the dowel bearing strength of MPP under the effect of exposure to elevated temperature. Thirty-two exposure duration-temperature combination was tested along with control group.  Two analytical models are developed to explain the thermal degradation, one assuming a mechanism based on first-order kinetics and the second using a statistical regression. The degradation in the dowel bearing strength with respect to the increase in time and temperature exposure was characterized. In general, the kinetics model seemed to explain the data better than MLR using one less parameter.


Akgul T, Sinha A (2016) Wood-to-oriented strandboard connections after exposure to elevated temperatures. Wood Fiber Sci 48:1–9

American Wood Council. (2018). National Design Specification (NDS) for Wood Construction. Leesburg, VA.

APA Wood (2021) Freres Mass Ply Panels (MPP) and Mass Ply Lams (MPL) Beams and Columns, Freres Lumber Co ., Inc .APA Product Report PR-L325.

ASTM International. (2014a). E119: Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials. West Conshohocken, PA.

International Code Council. (2015). International Building Code. Country Club Hills.

Mahr K, Sinha A, Barbosa AR (2020) Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Thermal Effects on a Typical Cross-Laminated Timber Bracket Shear Connection. J Mater Civ Eng 32:. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0003122

Miyamoto BT, Morrell I (2020) Connection Performance of Mass Plywood Panels. For Prod J 70:1–13. https://doi.org/10.13073/FPJ-D-19-00056

Morrell I, Soti R, Miyamoto B, Sinha A (2020) Experimental Investigation of Base Conditions Affecting Seismic Performance of Mass Plywood Panel Shear Walls. J Struct Eng 146:04020149. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)st.1943-541x.0002674

Puettmann M, Sinha A (2020) Life Cycle Assessment of Mass Ply Panels Produced in Oregon. Corvallis

Sinha A (2013) Thermal degradation modeling of flexural strength of wood after exposure to elevated temperatures. Wood Mater Sci Eng 8:111–118.


Sinha A, Gupta R, Nairn JA (2011a) Thermal degradation of bending properties of structural wood and wood-based composites. Holzforschung 65:221–229. https://doi.org/10.1515/HF.2011.001

Sinha A, Gupta R, Nairn JA (2011b) Thermal degradation of lateral yield strength of nailed wood connections. J Mater Civ Eng 23:812–822. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000233

Sinha A, Morrell I, Akgul T (2018) Thermal degradation modeling for single-shear nailed connections. Wood Mater Sci Eng 13:16–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/17480272.2016.1226947

Sinha A, Nairn JA, Gupta R (2011c) Thermal degradation of bending strength of plywood and oriented strand board: A kinetics approach. Wood Sci Technol 45:315–330. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00226-010-0329-3

Sinha A, Nairn JA, Gupta R (2012) The effect of elevated temperature exposure on the fracture toughness of solid wood and structural wood composites. Wood Sci Technol 46:1127–1149. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00226-012-0473-z

Soti R, Sinha A, Morrell I, Miyamoto BT (2020) Response of self-centering mass plywood panel shear walls. Wood Fiber Sci 52:102–116. https://doi.org/10.22382/wfs-2020-009

Stamm A (1956) Brief-Thermal Degradation of Wood and Celluiose. Ind Eng Chem 48:63–63. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie51398a614

White RH, Dietenberger MA (2001) Wood Products: Thermal Degradation and Fire. Encycl Mater Sci Technol 9712–9716. https://doi.org/10.1016/b0-08-043152-6/01763-0

Wiesner F, Bisby LA, Bartlett AI, (2019) Structural capacity in fire of laminated timber elements in compartments with exposed timber surfaces. Eng Struct 179:284–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.10.084

Winandy JE, LeVan SL, Ross RJ (1991) Thermal Degradation of Fire-Retardant-Treated Plywood Development and Evaluation of a Test Protocol. Wood Fiber Sci 9592:19–20






Research Contributions