Gate-To-Gate Life-Cycle Inventory of I-Joist Production
Keywords:Life-cycle inventory, LCI, I-joists, building materials, carbon balance, energy, emissions
AbstractA life-cycle inventory (LCI) study is conducted of wood composite I-joists manufacturing. This gate-to-gate study includes all materials, fuels, and electricity inputs to produce I-joists, co-products, and emissions. The inputs included the laminated veneer lumber (LVL) used for the I-joist's flanges and the oriented strandboard (OSB) used for the web, but it excluded the LCI for their input logs. Data were collected through surveys of manufacturing facilities in the Pacific Northwest and the Southeast. In addition to LCI data, transportation distances for delivery of materials are also provided. SimaPro software, a program to conduct life-cycle inventory and assessment studies, is used to process the data and determine environmental impacts in terms of material and energy use, and emissions. The impact data are allocated on a mass basis to I-joist based on their mass contribution to the sum of all product and co-product generated during the manufacturing process. All data are provided on a production unit basis of 1.0 km and 1.0 MLF (one thousand linear feet), the U.S. industry practice. In addition to LCI data, carbon flow data are also given. These LCI data are publicly available through comprehensive reports, this summary publication, and the U.S. Life-Cycle Inventory Database Project. The data are useful for generating cradle-to-gate product LCIs when combined with the LCIs to produce logs for the mills and material transportation impacts, and are useful as a benchmark for assessing process performance, and for conducting life-cycle analysis of floor and roof assemblies and residential structures using I-joists.
APA-The Engineered Wood Association (APA). 2001. E-mail from Craig Adair, Director, Market Research. North America production by geography 2000. 16 Nov 2001. 1 p.nATHENA™ Sustainable Materials Institute (ATHENA). 1993. Raw materials balances, energy profiles and environmental unit factor estimates: Structural wood products. Forintek Canada Corp., Ottawa, Canada. March. 42 pp.nBirdsey, R. A. 1992. Carbon storage and accumulation in U.S. Forest Ecosystems. General Technical Report WO-59. USDA Forest Service. Washington, DC. 51 pp.nBowyer, J., D. Briggs, B. Lippke, J. Perez-Garcia, and J. Wilson. 2004. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction. CORRIM Phase I Final Report. University of Washington, Seattle, WA. http://www.corrim.org/reports/. 600+ pp.nBriggs, D. 1994. Forest products measurements and conversion factors: With special emphasis on the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Institute of Forest Resources. College of Forest Resources, University of Washington. Seattle, WA. Contribution No. 75. 161 pp.nConsortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM). 2001. Research Guidelines for Life Cycle Inventories. University of Washington, Seattle, WA. 47 pp.nEnergy Information Administration (EIA). 2001. State electric power annual 2000 Vol. I, Department of Energy. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epav1_sum.html'>www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epav1_sum.html.nForest Products Laboratory (FPL). 1999. Wood handbook: Wood as an engineering material. Gen. Tech. Rep FPL-GTR-113. USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. Madison, WI. 463 pp.nFranklin Associates LTD (FAL). 2001. The Franklin U.S. LCI 98 Library. http://www.pre.nl/download/manuals/DatabaseManualFranklinUS98.pdf'>www.pre.nl/download/manuals/DatabaseManualFranklinUS98.pdf.nInternational Organization for Standardization (ISO). 1997. Environmental management—life cycle assessment—principles, and framework. ISO 14040. First Edition 1997-06-15. Geneva, Switzerland. 16 pp.nInternational Organization for Standardization (ISO). 1998. Environmental management—life cycle assessment—goal and scope definition, and inventory analysis. ISO 14041. First Edition 1998-10-01. Geneva, Switzerland. 26 pp.nJohnson, L. R., B. Lippke, J. Marshall, and J. Comnick. 2004. Forest resources-Pacific Northwest and Southeast. In CORRIM Phase I Final Report Module A. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction. University of Washington, Seattle, WA. http://www.corrim.org/reports. 84 ppnKline, D. E. 2004. Southeastern oriented strandboard production. In CORRIM Phase I Final Report Module E. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction. University of Washington, Seattle, WA. http://www.corrim.org/reports. 75 pp.nLippke, B., J. Wilson, J. Perez-Garcia, J. Bowyer, and J. Meil. 2004. CORRIM: Life-cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials. Forest Prod. J. 54(6):8-19.nNational Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, Inc. (NCASI). 1999. Volatile organic compound emissions from wood products manufacturing facilities, Part II - engineered wood products. Technical Bulletin No. 769. Research Triangle Park, NC. 46 p.nNational Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). 2005. Life-cycle inventory database project. http://www.nrel.gov/lci/'>www.nrel.gov/lci/.nPerez-Garcia, J., B. Lippke, D. Briggs, J. Wilson, J. Bowyer, and J. Meil. 2005. The environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction. Wood Fiber Sci. In this issue.nPRe' Consultants. 2001. SimaPro5 Life-cycle assessment software package, Version 5.0.009. Plotter 12, 3821 BB Amersfoort, The Netherlands. http://www.pre.nl'>www.pre.nl.nUnited States Department of Energy (USDOE). 2001. State electricity profiles 2000. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/st_profiles/'>www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/st_profiles/.nUnited States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2003. Wood waste combustion in boilers 20 pp, in AP 42, Fifth Edition, Volume I Chapter 1: External Combustion Sources. http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch01/index.html'>www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch01/index.html.nWilson, J. B., and E. R. Dancer. 2004a. Laminated veneer lumber-Pacific Northwest and Southeast. In CORRIM Phase I Final Report Module H. Life cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction. University of Washington, Seattle, WA. http://www.corrim.org/reports/. 120 pp.nWilson, J. B., and E. R. Dancer. 2004b. Composite I-joists-Pacific Northwest and Southeast. In CORRIM Phase I Final Report Module F. Life-cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction. University of Washington, Seattle, WA. http://www.corrim.org/reports/. 120 pp.nWilson, J. B., and E. R. Sakimoto. 2004. Softwood plywood manufacturing. In CORRIM Phase I Final Report Module D. Life-cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction. University of Washington, Seattle, WA. http://www.corrim.org/reports/. 86 pp.nWinistorfer, P., Z. Chen, B. Lippke, and N. Stevens. 2005. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions related to the use, maintenance and disposal of a residential structure. Wood Fiber Sci. In this Special Issue.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.