Windbreak-Grown <i>Casuarina</i> and <i>Eucalyptus</i> Trees for Unbleached Kraft Pulp
Keywords:Pulp properties, unbleached pulp, juvenile wood, handsheets, scanning electron microscopy, fiber morphology
AbstractA laboratory-scale evaluation was conducted of juvenile windbreak-grown Casuarina and Eucalyptus trees for kraft pulp production. Test results of unscreened pulp yields, pulp chemical analyses, and handsheet physical properties indicated that windbreak-grown materials are suitable for unbleached kraft pulp. Casuarina gave the best pulp yield and had higher tear strength than Eucalyptus, but both species were superior to kraft pulps from agricultural raw materials such as rice straw and Thymelia, which are currently used in Egypt. For both species, the best kraft pulping schedule tested was a 4:1 liquor-to-wood ratio with 20% active alkali with additional conditions constant. Scanning electron micrographs of handsheets helped explain the observed differences in physical properties between the two species. Mixing of Casuarina and Eucalyptus raw material prior to pulping shows promise for unbleached kraft pulp production.
Abou-Salem, A. H. 1966. Bleaching of rice straw pulp. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Engineering Library, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. 239 pp.nAhmed, A. M., P. Obrocea, S. Petoven, and C. R. Simionescu. 1978. On the possibility of using rice straw, bagasse, and reed pulps in the manufacture of some grades of paper. Cellulose Chem. Technol.7:135-150.nAly, H. M. 1976. Pulping of young eucalypt trees from windbreaks grown in N.W. Egypt. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture Library, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. 130 pp.nBarker, R. G. 1974. Papermaking properties of young hardwoods. Tappi57(8):107-111.nBowman, D. F., and P. E. Nelson. 1965. The effect of extractives on the color of eucalypt pulps. Appita19:8-13.nBritt, K. W. 1970. Paper testing. Pages 665-682 in K. Britt. Handbook of pulp and paper technology. Van Reinhold, New York.nEl-Osta, M., M. El-Lakany, and M. Megahed. 1981. Anatomical characteristics of some Casuarina species grown in Egypt. IAWA Bull. n.s.2(2-3)95-98.nEl-Tarboulsi, M. A., and A. H. Abou-Salem. 1967. Rice straw for fine paper. I. Mild soda pulping of rice straw. Tappi50(11):107-109.nFAO. 1975. Pulping and paper making properties of fast growing plantation wood species. FO:MISC/75/31, 466 pp.nFoelkel, C. E., and C. Zvinakevicius. 1980. Hardwood pulping in Brazil. Tappi63(3):39-42.nGuha, S. R., Y. K. Sharma, R. Pant, and S. N. Dhondiyal. 1970. Chemical, semichemical and mechanical pulps from Casuarina equisetifolia. Indian Forester, Nov., pp. 830-840.nInstitute of Paper Chemistry. 1951. Institute of Paper Chemistry, Appleton, WI—Methods No. 28, 411-5 and 421.nKandeel, S. A. E., O. Badran, M. El-Osta, and H. M. Aly. 1978. Complete tree pulping of young eucalypt windbreak trees. Proc. 32nd Annual Meeting FPRS, Atlanta, GA. June 25-30, 1978. p. 21 (Abst.).nKherallah, I. E. A. 1975. Extractive content and basic density variation within Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. grown in Egypt. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture Library, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. 217 pp.nMacDonald, R. G., and J. N. Franklin. 1969. Pulp and paper manufacture. Vol. 1. The pulping of wood. McGraw-Hill, New York.nMaheswari, S., R. Nayak, P. Meshramkar, and N. Jaspal. 1979. Comparative studies on the pulping and papermaking properties of Casuarina equisetifolia and Eucalyptus hybrid. Indian Pulp Paper34(3):9-13.nMetcalfe, C. R., and L. Chalk. 1950. Anatomy of the dicotyledons. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, London. 1500 pp.nNelson, P. E., J. G. Smith, and W. D. Young. 1970. The influence of extractives on some properties of eucalypt kraft pulp. Appita24:101-107.nParham, R. A., K. W. Robinson, and J. G. Isebrands. 1977. Effects of tension wood on kraft paper from a short rotation hardwood (Populus Tristis #1). Wood Sci. Technol.11:291-303.nTappi. 1950. Permanganate number of pulp. Tappi Standard No. 214-m.nTappi. 1958. Ash in pulp. Tappi Standard No. 211-m.nTewfick, S. F. A. 1975. Fiber length, cellulose content, and specific gravity variation within eucalypt trees (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn), grown in Egypt. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture Library, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. 237 pp.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.