SEISMIC DESIGN OF CROSS-LAMINATED TIMBER BUILDINGS
Keywords:Seismicity, Design standards, Platform-type construction, Ductility, Connections
The increasing interest in cross-laminated timber (CLT) construction has resulted in multiple international research projects and publications covering the manufacturing and performance of CLT. Multiple regions and countries have adopted provisions for CLT into their engineering design standards and building regulations. Designing and building CLT structures, also in earthquake-prone regions is no longer a domain for early adopters, but is becoming a part of regular timber engineering practice. The increasing interest in CLT construction has resulted in multiple regions and countries adopting provisions for CLT into their engineering design standards. However, given the economic and legal differences between each region, some fundamental issues are treated differently, particularly with respect to seismic design. This article reflects the state-of-the-art on seismic design of CLT buildings including both, the global perspective and regional differences comparing the seismic design practice in Europe, Canada, the United States, New Zealand, Japan, China, and Chile.
Adams J, Halchuk S, Allen T, Rogers GC (2015) Canada’s
th generation seismic hazard model, as prepared for the
National Building Code of Canada in Proc. of the
th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering,
July 21-24, 2015, Victoria, BC, Canada.
Akbas T, Sause R, Ricles J, Ganey R, Berman J, Lotus S,
Dolan JD, Pei S, van de Lindt J, Blomgren H (2017)
Analytical and experimental lateral load response of self centering CLT walls. J Struct Eng 143(6):04017019.
Amini MO, van de Lindt JW, Rammer D, Pei S, Line P,
Popovski M (2016) Determination of seismic performance
factors for CLT building systems. WCTE 2016, Vienna,
ANSI/APA (2017) PRG 320, Standards for performancerated
cross-laminated timber. American National Standard,
APA, Tacoma, WA.
ASCE (2016) Minimum design loads for building and other
structures. ASCE Standard ASC/SEI 7-16, American
Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
BCBC (2012) Building code of British Columbia, Office of
housing and construction standards. National Research
Council, Victoria, BC, Canada.
Brandner R, Flatscher G, Ringhofer A, Schickhofer G, Thiel
A (2016) Cross laminated timber (CLT): Overview and
development. Eur J Wood Wood Prod 74(3):331-351.
BSL Article 20 (2015) Guideline for building standard law,
enforcement order and notification for structural design,
p. 25, Article 20, Official Gazette Co-operation of Japan.
BSL Article 37 (2015) Guideline for building standard law,
enforcement order and notification for structural design,
p. 48, Article 37, Official Gazette Co-operation of Japan.
BSL (2016) Japan ministry of land, infrastructure, transport
and tourism, building standard law. The Building Standard
Law of Japan, Building Center of Japan, Tokyo, Japan.
Cassidy JF, et al. (2010) Canada’s earthquakes: ‘The good,
the bad, and the ugly’. Geoscience Canada 37(1):1911-
CEA (2018) China earthquake administration. http://www.
cea.gov.cn/ (accessed November 2017).
Ceccotti A, Follesa M (2006) Seismic behaviour of multistorey
XLam buildings in Proc. COST Action E29,
International Workshop—Earthquake Engineering on
Timber Structures, pages 81-95, Coimbra, Portugal.
Ceccotti A, Sandhaas C, Okabe M, Yasumura M, Minowa C,
Kawai N (2013) SOFIE project–3D shaking table test on
a seven-storey full-scale cross-laminated timber building.
Earthquake Eng Struct Dyn 42(13):2003-2021.
CEN (2001) EN 12512: 2001. Timber structures—Test
methods—Cyclic testing of joints made with mechanical
fasteners. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels,
CEN (2004) Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake
resistance, Part 1: General rules, seismic actions and rules
for buildings. European Committee for Standardization,
CEN (2008) EN 1995-1-1:2008. Eurocode 5: Design of
timber structures—Part 1-1: General—Common rules and
rules for buildings. European Committee for Standardization,
Centro Sismologico Nacional (2018) Sismicidad y terremotos
en Chile. Centro Sismologico Nacional/Universidad
de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
CSA O86 (2014) Engineering design in wood. Canadian
Standards Association, Ottawa, Canada.
CSA O86 (2016) Supplement. Engineering design in wood.
Canadian Standards Association, Ottawa, Canada.
DFL N°458 (1975) Ley General de Urbanismo y Construcciones.
Dimova S, Fuchs M, Pinto A, Sousa L, Nikolova B, Iannaccone
S (2015) State of implementation of the Eurocodes in the
European Union: Support to the implementation, harmonization and further development of the Eurocodes. Report 2015. EUR 27511. doi:10.2788/85493.
DR AS NZS (2018) Timber structures-Part 1: Design methods.
Standards New Zealand, 1720.1, Wellington, New Zealand.
DS N°47 Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo (2017)
Normativa de Urbanismo y Construcciones.
EN 16351 (2015) Timber structures—Cross-laminated
timber—Requirements. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium.
European Union (2011) Regulation (EU) No 305/2011 of the
European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2011
laying down harmonised conditions for the marketing of
construction products and repealing Council Directive
/106/EEC, European Union, Brussels, Belgium.
European Union (2016) The European construction sector. A
global partner. Internal market, industry, entrepreneurship
and SMEs directorate general energy directorate general.
Joint Research Centre (JRC). https://ec.europa.eu (accessed
FDMA, Fire and Disaster Management Agency (2006) Hanshin-
Awaji Great Earthquake. www.fdma.go.jp/bn/1995/detail/
html (accessed November 2017).
FDMA, Fire and Disaster Management Agency (2016)
Higashi Nihon Great Earthquake. www.fdma.go.jp/bn/
higaihou.html (accessed November 2017).
FEMA (2009) Quantification of building seismic performance
factors: FEMA P695. Federal Emergency Management
Agency, Washington, D.C.
Follesa M, Fragiacomo M, Casagrande D, Canetti D, Tomasi
R, Piazza M, Vassallo D, Rossi S (2018) The new provisions
for the seismic design of timber buildings in Europe. Engineering Structures, Special issue.
Follesa M, Fragiacomo M, Vassallo D, Piazza M, Tomasi R,
Rossi S, Casagrande D (2015) A proposal for a new
background document of chapter 8 of Eurocode 8, paper
-7-3 in Proc. 2nd International Network on Timber
Engineering Research (INTER), Sibenik, Croatia.
Gagnon S, Pirvu C (2012) Cross-laminated timber (CLT)
handbook. FPInnovations, Vancouver, Canada. 594 pp.
Ganey R, Berman J, Akbas T, Loftus S, Daniel Dolan J,
Sause R, Blomgren HE (2017) Experimental investigation
of self-centering cross-laminated timber walls. J Struct Eng
Gavric I, Fragiacomo M, Ceccotti A (2015) Cyclic behavior
of CLT wall systems: Experimental tests and analytical
prediction models. J Struct Eng 141(11):04015034.
GB 18306-2016 (2016) Seismic ground motion parameter
zonation map of China. National Standard of the People’s
Republic of China, China Criterion Press, Beijing, China.
GB 50005 (2017) Code for design of timber structures. China
Architecture and Building Press, Beijing, China.
GB 50011 (2001) Code for seismic design of buildings,
National Standard of the People’s Republic of China,
China Building Industry Press, Beijing, China.
GB/T 51226 (2017) Multi-story and high rise timber buildings.
China Architecture and Building Press, Beijing, China.
Giardini D, Woessner J, Danciu L, Cotton F, Crowley H,
Grunthal G, Stucchi M (2013) Seismic Hazard Harmonization
in Europe (SHARE): Online Data Resource. doi:
GNS Science (2018)Major faults in NewZealand. https://www.
Major-Faults-in-New-Zealand (accessedNovember 2017).
Gonzalez P, Saavedra E, Perez E, Burgos C, Piña F, Wagner
M (2014) Sistema constructivo en madera contralaminada
para edificios. Servicios Forestales y de Exposiciones S.A.,
He M, Duo T, Zheng L (2016) State-of-the-art of research
advances on multi-story timber and timber-hybrid structures.
J Build Struct 37(10):1-9.
HERP (2017) Japanese Headquarters for Earthquake Research
Promotion Report National Seismic Hazar Maps for Japan.
www.jishin.go.jp/main/index-e.html (accessed November
HOWTEC (2016a) Guideline for 2016 CLT relative notifications.
Japan Housing and Wood Technology Center, Tokyo, Japan.
HOWTEC (2016b) Design and construction manual for CLT
buildings. Japan Housing and Wood Technology Center.
Hummel J (2017) Displacement-based seismic design for
multi-storey cross-laminated timber buildings. PhD thesis,
Kassel University Press, Kassel, Germany. 224 pp.
International Building Code (IBC) (2018) International Code
Council, Washington, D.C.
Iqbal A (2015) Cross-laminated timber for building structures.
SR336. BRANZ Report.
Kawai N, Miyake T, Yasumura M, Isoda H, Koshihara M,
Nakajima S, Araki Y, Nakagawa T, Sato M (2016) Full
scale shake table tests on five story and three story CLT
building structures in Proc. 14th World Conference on
Timber Engineering, August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria.
Khazaradse G, Klotz J (2003) Short and long-term effects of
GPS measured crustal deformation rates along the southcentral Andes. J Geophys Res 108(B6):1-15.
Johansen KW (1949) Theory of timber connections. Int
Assoc Bridge Struct Eng 9:249-262.
Lauriola MP, SandhaasC(2006) Quasi-static and pseudo-dynamic tests onXLAMwalls and buildings in Proc. COST Action E29, International Workshop—Earthquake Engineering on Timber Structures, pages 119-133, Coimbra, Portugal.
Luco N, Ellingwood BR, Hamburger RO, Hooper JD,
Kimball JK, Kircher CA (2007) Risk-targeted versus
current seismic design maps for the conterminous United
States in Proc. Structural Engineers Association of California
Convention, Sacramento, CA.
Madariaga R (1998) Sismicidad de Chile. Fis Tierra 10:
Meyer A (1957) Die Tragfahigkeit von Nagelverbindungen
bei statischer Belastung. Holz Roh Werkst 15(2):96-109.
Miyake T, Yasumura M, Kawai N, Isoda H, Koshihara M,
Tsuchimoto T, Araki Y, Nakagawa T (2016) Structural
possibility of CLT panel constructions in High seismic
area in Proc. 14th World Conference on Timber Engineering,
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria.
Moroder D, Smith T, Dunbar A, Pampanin S, Buchanan A
(2018) Seismic testing of post-tensioned Pres-Lam core
walls using cross laminated timber. Eng Struct 167:639-654.
NCh1198 (2007)Madera—Construcciones en madera—Calculo.
Instituto Nacional de Normalizacion INN-Chile, Santiago de
NCh433 (1996) Diseno sismico de edificios. Instituto Nacional
De Normalizacion, INN-Chile, Santiago de Chile.
NDS (2018) National design specification for wood construction. American National Standards Institute/American
Wood Council (ANSI/AWC), Leesburg, VA.
NRC (2015) National building code of Canada 2015, Canadian
commission on building and fire codes. National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada.
NRCAN (2016) Geological survey of Canada earthquake
search (On-line Bulletin). Natural Resources Canada.
bull-eng.php.52 (accessed November 2017).
NZBC (2004) New Zealand building code. New Zealand
Government, Wellington, New Zealand.
NZS (1993) 3603. Timber structures standard. Standard
Association of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand.
NZS (2004) 1170.5. Structural design actions. Part 5:
Earthquake actions—New Zealand. Standard Association
of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand.
NZS (2006) 3101. Concrete structures standard Parts 1 & 2:
The Design of concrete structures and commentary.
Standard Association of New Zealand, Wellington, New
NZS (2011) 3604. Timber framed buildings. Standard Association of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand.
Ottenhaus LM, Li M, Smith T, Quenneville P (2018)
Overstrength of dowelled CLT connections under
monotonic and cyclic loading. Bull Earthquake Eng 16(2):
Parker J (2015) Timber takes on new forms. BRANZ, Build
Magazine. Build 149.
Pei S, Lenon C, Kingsley G, Deng P (2017) Seismic design of
cross-laminated timber platform buildings using a coupled
shear wall concept. J Archit Eng 23(3):06017001.
Pei S, van de Lindt JW, Popovski M (2013) Approximate
R-factor for cross-laminated timber walls in multistory
buildings. J Archit Eng 19(4):245-255.
Pei S, van de Lindt JW, Popovski M, Berman JW, Dolan JD,
Ricles JM, Sause R, Blomgren H-E, Rammer DR (2015)
Cross laminated timber for seismic regions: Progress and
challenges for research and implementation. J Struct Eng
Perez E, Gonzalez P, Saavedra E, Tapia S, Torelli S, Orellana
S (2017) Mechanical characterization and hysteretic behaviour
of CLT panels made of Chilean radiata pine in
Proc. 16th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering,
January 9-13, 2017, Santiago, Chile.
Pina F, Gonzalez P, Burgos C, Saavedra E (2015) Seismic
design of amid-rise building inChile using radiate pine cross
laminated timber in Proc. 11th Canadian Conference on
Earthquake Engineering, July 21-24, 2015, BC, Canada.
Popovski M, Gavric I (2015) Performance of a 2-story CLT
house subjected to lateral loads. J Struct Eng 142(4):
Popovski M, Schneider J, Schweinsteiger M (2010) Lateral
load resistance of cross laminated wood panels. Pages 20-21,
Curran Associates in Proc. 11thWorld Conference on Timber
Engineering, June 20-24, 2010, Riva del Garda, Italy.
Priestley MJN, Calvi GM, KowalskyMJ (2007) Displacement based seismic design of structures. IUSS Press, Pavia, Italy.
SDPWS (2015) ANSI/AWC Special design provisions for
wind and seismic. AmericanWood Council, Leesburg, VA.
Shahnewaz M, Tannert T, Alam MS, Popovski M (2017) Inplane
stiffness of cross-laminated timber panels with openings. Struct Eng Int 27(2):217-223.
Stirling M, McVerry G, Gerstenberger M, Litchfield N, Van
Dissen R, Berryman K, Lamarche G (2012) National
seismic hazard model for New Zealand: 2010 Update. Bull
Seismol Soc Am 102(4):1514-1542.
van de Lindt JW, Amini MO, Rammer D, Pei S, Line P,
Popovski M (2016) Progress in developing seismic performance factors for cross laminated timber in the United
States via the FEMA P695 methodology in Proc. ASCE
Structures Congress, April 3-5, Boston, MA.
Woessner J, Laurentiu D, Giardini D, Crowley H, Cotton F,
Grunthal G, Hiemer S (2015) The 2013 European seismic
hazard model: key components and results. Bull Earthquake
Xiong H, Ouyang L, Wu Y (2016a) State-of-the-art on research
of tall wood buildings. J Tongji Univ 44(9):1297-1306. (Natural Science).
Xiong H, Ouyang L, Wu Y (2016b) Preliminary design of
a novel hybrid tall building with concrete frame-tube and
light wood boxes in Proc. World Conference on Timber
Engineering, August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria.
Yasumura M, Kobayashi K, Okabe M, Miyake T, Matsumoto
K (2015) Full-scale tests and numerical analysis of low-rise
CLT structures under lateral loading. J Struct Eng 142(4):
Zhang X, Yang G, Lu X, Li M, Yang Z (2009) Relation
between the characteristics of strong earthquake activities
in Chinese mainland and the Wenchuan earthquake.
J Earth Sci 22:505-518.
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.