Potential of Natural-Origin Loblolly Pine Tree Fractions as A Bioenergy Feedstock
Keywords:Loblolly pine, Bioenergy, Chemical Characterization, Forest Residues, Thinnings
Chemical characterization was performed on ten different samples of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), representing various woody components of trees (bole, slab, tops and branches, and whole tree) harvested from two naturally regenerated forests in southern Arkansas (USA). Ultimate analysis, proximate analysis using thermogravimetry, and the energy content of the samples were determined to help evaluate their bioenergy utility. These whole tree samples may be an attractive prospect for bioenergy applications such as gasification, pelletization, and combustion, owing to favorable heating content values and relatively low ash content. Although a number of logistical challenges exist in their acquisition and processing, slabs, topwood, and branches offer opportunities for bioenergy applications that can increase the utilization of forest residues without threatening more traditional uses of wood in lumber, panels, and paper. Finally, we then briefly consider the silvicultural implications of these results for naturally regenerated southern pine-dominated forests.
Fao Statistical Yearbook 2013: World Food and Agriculture. Print.
Abt, Karen L., and Robert C. Abt. "Potential Impact of Bioenergy Demand on the Sustainability of the Southern Forest Resource." Journal of Sustainable Forestry 32 (2012): 175-94. Print.
Alavalapati, JRR, et al. Forest Biomass Based Energy. Asheville, NC: USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station, 2013. Print.
Alves, S. S., and J. L. Figueiredo. "Pyrolysis Kinetics of Lignocellulosic Materials by Multistage Isothermal Thermogravimetry." Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 13.1–2 (1988): 123-34. Print.
Andrew Scott, D., and Thomas J. Dean. "Energy Trade-Offs between Intensive Biomass Utilization, Site Productivity Loss, and Ameliorative Treatments in Loblolly Pine Plantations." Biomass and Bioenergy 30.12 (2006): 1001-10. Print.
Antal, Michael Jerry, Jr., and Gabor Varhegyi. "Cellulose Pyrolysis Kinetics: The Current State of Knowledge." Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 34.3 (1995): 703-17. Print.
Biagini, Enrico, Federica Barontini, and Leonardo Tognotti. "Devolatilization of Biomass Fuels and Biomass Components Studied by Tg/Ftir Technique." Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 45.13 (2006): 4486-93. Print.
Bragg, DC, and JM Guldin. "The Silvicultural Implications of Age Patterns in Two Southern Pine Stands Following 72 Years of Uneven-Aged Management." Forest Science (In Press). Print.
Cain, Michael D. "Growth Expectations from Alternative Thinning Regimes and Prescribed Burning in Naturally Regenerated Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Stands through Age 20." Forest Ecology and Management 81.1–3 (1996): 227-41. Print.
Das, K. C., et al. "Pyrolysis Characteristics of Forest Residues Obtained from Different Harvesting Methods." (2011). Print.
Demirbaş, A. "Relationships between Lignin Contents and Heating Values of Biomass." Energy Conversion and Management 42.2 (2001): 183-88. Print.
Demirbaş, Ayhan. "Relationships between Lignin Contents and Fixed Carbon Contents of Biomass Samples." Energy Conversion and Management 44.9 (2003): 1481-86. Print.
Eisenbies, M. H., et al. "Intensive Utilization of Harvest Residues in Southern Pine Plantations: Quantities Available and Implications for Nutrient Budgets and Sustainable Site Productivity." BioEnergy Research 2.3 (2009): 90-98. Print.
Elder, John P. "Proximate Analysis by Automated Thermogravimetry." Fuel 62.5 (1983): 580-84. Print.
Elder, Thomas, John S. Kush, and Sharon M. Hermann. "Thermogravimetric Analysis of Forest Understory Grasses." Thermochimica Acta 512.1–2 (2011): 170-77. Print.
Esteghlalian, Alireza, et al. "Modeling and Optimization of the Dilute-Sulfuric-Acid Pretreatment of Corn Stover, Poplar and Switchgrass." Bioresource Technology 59.2–3 (1997): 129-36. Print.
Evans, JM, et al. Forestry Bioenergy in the Southeast United States: Implications for Wildlife Habitat and Biodiversity. Merrifield, VA: National Wildlife Federation, 2013. Print.
FAO. "Gasification Fuels." Fao Forestry Paper 72: Wood Gas as Engine Fuel. Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 1986. 30-31. Print.
Foust, ThomasD, et al. "An Economic and Environmental Comparison of a Biochemical and a Thermochemical Lignocellulosic Ethanol Conversion Processes." Cellulose 16.4 (2009): 547-65. Print.
Frederick Jr, W. J., et al. "Co-Production of Ethanol and Cellulose Fiber from Southern Pine: A Technical and Economic Assessment." Biomass and Bioenergy 32.12 (2008): 1293-302. Print.
Galik, Christopher S., Robert Abt, and Yun Wu. "Forest Biomass Supply in the Southeastern United States—Implications for Industrial Roundwood and Bioenergy Production." Journal of Forestry 107.2 (2009): 69-77. Print.
Gan, Jianbang, and C. T. Smith. "Co-Benefits of Utilizing Logging Residues for Bioenergy Production: The Case for East Texas, Usa." Biomass and Bioenergy 31.9 (2007): 623-30. Print.
Goh, Chun Sheng, et al. "Wood Pellet Market and Trade: A Global Perspective." Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 7.1 (2013): 24-42. Print.
Grano, Charles X. "Precommercial Thinning of Loblolly Pine." Journal of Forestry 67.11 (1969): 825-27. Print.
Greene, W. Dale, et al. "Improving Woody Biomass Feedstock Logistics by Reducing Ash and Moisture Content." BioEnergy Research 7.3 (2014): 816-23. Print.
Grønli, Morten Gunnar, Gábor Várhegyi, and Colomba Di Blasi. "Thermogravimetric Analysis and Devolatilization Kinetics of Wood." Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 41.17 (2002): 4201-08. Print.
Heikkinen, J. M., et al. "Thermogravimetry as a Tool to Classify Waste Components to Be Used for Energy Generation." Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 71.2 (2004): 883-900. Print.
Heinimö, J., and M. Junginger. "Production and Trading of Biomass for Energy – an Overview of the Global Status." Biomass and Bioenergy 33.9 (2009): 1310-20. Print.
Hinchee, Maud, et al. "Short-Rotation Woody Crops for Bioenergy and Biofuels Applications." In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant 45.6 (2009): 619-29. Print.
Hough, WA. "Caloric Value of Some Forest Fuels of the Southern United States." Ed. USDA. Asheville, NC: Forest Service, 1969. Print.
Huber, George W., Sara Iborra, and Avelino Corma. "Synthesis of Transportation Fuels from Biomass: Chemistry, Catalysts, and Engineering." ChemInform 37.52 (2006): 4044-98. Print.
Johnson, TG, JW Bentley, and H Howell. The South's Timber Industry- an Assessment of Timber Product Output and Use, 2009. Asheville, NC2011. Print.
Karatepe, Nilgün, and Sadriye Küçükbayrak. "Proximate Analysis of Some Turkish Lignites by Thermogravimetry." Thermochimica Acta 213.0 (1993): 147-50. Print.
Lamlom, S. H., and R. A. Savidge. "A Reassessment of Carbon Content in Wood: Variation within and between 41 North American Species." Biomass and Bioenergy 25.4 (2003): 381-88. Print.
Lamlom, Sabah H., and Rodney A. Savidge. "Carbon Content Variation in Boles of Mature Sugar Maple and Giant Sequoia." Tree Physiology 26.4 (2006): 459-68. Print.
Mahishi, Madhukar R., and D. Y. Goswami. "An Experimental Study of Hydrogen Production by Gasification of Biomass in the Presence of a Sorbent." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 32.14 (2007): 2803-08. Print.
Mann, W. F., and R. E. Lohrey. "Precommercial Thinning of Southern Pines." Journal of Forestry 72.9 (1974): 557-60. Print.
McKendry, Peter. "Energy Production from Biomass (Part 3): Gasification Technologies." Bioresource Technology 83.1 (2002): 55-63. Print.
McLaughlin, S. B., et al. "High-Value Renewable Energy from Prairie Grasses." Environmental Science & Technology 36.10 (2002): 2122-29. Print.
McMillin, CE. "Ash Content of Loblolly Pine Wood as Related to Specific Gravity, Growth Rate, and Distance from Pith." Wood science 2.1 (1969): 26-30. Print.
Milota, Michael, Cynthia West, and Ian Hartley. "Gate-to-Gate Life-Cycle Inventory of Softwood Lumber Production." Wood and Fiber Science 37.0 (2005): 47-57. Print.
Nowak, John, et al. "The Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Initiative: Working for Healthier Forests." Journal of Forestry 106.5 (2008): 261-67. Print.
Parikh, Jigisha, S. A. Channiwala, and G. K. Ghosal. "A Correlation for Calculating Hhv from Proximate Analysis of Solid Fuels." Fuel 84.5 (2005): 487-94. Print.
Parikka, Matti. "Global Biomass Fuel Resources." Biomass and Bioenergy 27.6 (2004): 613-20. Print.
Pearson, RG, RJ Weir, and WD Smith. "Utilization of Pine Thinnings." Southern Forest Economics Workers Conference. 1980. Print.
Perlack, RD, and Stokes BJ. "U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply For a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry." Ed. Energy, U. S. Department of. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2011. 227. Print.
Polagye, Brian L., Kevin T. Hodgson, and Philip C. Malte. "An Economic Analysis of Bio-Energy Options Using Thinnings from Overstocked Forests." Biomass and Bioenergy 31.2–3 (2007): 105-25. Print.
Quinn, LaurenD, et al. "Bioenergy Feedstocks at Low Risk for Invasion in the Usa: A “White List” Approach." BioEnergy Research (2014): 1-11. Print.
Ragland, K. W., D. J. Aerts, and A. J. Baker. "Properties of Wood for Combustion Analysis." Bioresource Technology 37.2 (1991): 161-68. Print.
Risser, PaulG. "Agricultural and Forestry Residues." Biomass Conversion Processes for Energy and Fuels. Eds. Sofer, SamirS and OskarR Zaborsky: Springer US, 1981. 25-47. Print.
Shelton, Michael Gwinn, Lyle Engnar Nelson, and George L. Switzer. "Weight, Volume and Nutrient Status of Plantation-Grown Loblolly Pine Trees in the Interior Flatwoods of Mississippi." (1984). Print.
Sims, Ralph E. H., et al. "An Overview of Second Generation Biofuel Technologies." Bioresource Technology 101.6 (2010): 1570-80. Print.
Skodras, George, et al. "Pyrolysis and Combustion Characteristics of Biomass and Waste-Derived Feedstock." Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 45.11 (2006): 3791-99. Print.
Smith, W. B., et al. "Forest Resources of the United States, 2007: A Technical Document Supporting the Forest Service 2010 Rpa Assessment." General Technical Report - USDA Forest Service.WO-78 (2009): vii + 337 pp. Print.
Van Lear, DH, JB Waide, and MJ Teuke. "Biomass and Nutrient Content of a 41-Year Old Loblolly Pine (Pinus Taeda L.) Plantation on a Poor Site in South Carolina." Forest Science 30.2 (1984): 395-404. Print.
Wear, DN, and JG Gries. The Southern Forest Futures Project: Summary Report. Asheville, NC: USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station, 2012. Print.
White, RH. "Effect of Lignin Content and Extractives on the Higher Heating Value of Wood." Wood and Fiber Science 19.4 (1987): 446-52. Print.
Wright, Mark M., and Robert C. Brown. "Comparative Economics of Biorefineries Based on the Biochemical and Thermochemical Platforms." Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 1.1 (2007): 49-56. Print.
Yan, Wei, et al. "Thermal Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass." Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy 28.3 (2009): 435-40. Print.
Zhou, Limin, et al. "Thermogravimetric Characteristics and Kinetic of Plastic and Biomass Blends Co-Pyrolysis." Fuel Processing Technology 87.11 (2006): 963-69. Print.
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.