Vertical Density Profile and Internal Bond Strength of Wet-Formed Particleboard Bonded with Cellulose Nanofibrils
Keywords:fractional factorial design, vertical density profile, internal bond, CNF addition ratio, pressing method, core and face density
In this study, the effects of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) ratio, press program, particle size, and density on the vertical density profile (VDP) and internal bond (IB) strength of the wet-formed particleboard were investigated. Results revealed that the VDP was significantly influenced by the press program. Pressing using a constant pressure (CP) press program produced panels with flat-shaped profile. Panels made from a constant thickness (CT) press program produced U-shaped profile. The CNF ratio and density also influenced the VDP especially for the CT panels. As the CNF ratio increased, there were noticeable increases in face density, while the core density slowly increased. The CT panels had the lowest core density compared with the CP counterparts, thus significantly lowering the IB. The IB of CP panels increased with the increase of CNF ratio, but the trend for CT panels was different. For the 10% CNF ratio, the IB increased as the core density increased. For the 15% and 20% CNF ratios, the IB decreased as the core density increased. For CP panels, the minimum core densities were higher and thus the IB was significantly higher. None of the panels met the IB values for high-density standard particleboard. All CP panels met some of the medium-density standard IB values and all the low-density standard IB values. However, for the CT panels, only those with 15% and 20% CNF ratio marginally met the low- and medium-density particleboard standard. Trends show that increased CNF ratio and higher pressure could improve IB properties for the high-density particleboard.
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