Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND PHYSICAL ANALYSIS OF PLANT BIOMASS AND AGRICULTURAL WASTE PRODUCTS IN LOUISIANA

A Sharma, E Terrell, C.S. Theegala

Abstract


There are many properties that can affect the quality of syngas generated from biomass gasification. Among the most critical are ash, heating value, moisture, and density of the feedstock. The focus of this study is to analyze the characteristics of different woody biomass materials and agricultural wastes typically found in Louisiana or similar regions. The energy content of combustible gases produced by gasification is also quantified. The feedstocks analyzed are pine, hardwood pellets, alfalfa, switchgrass, sugarcane bagasse, corn, cypress mulch, chipped bark nuggets, dairy manure, and poultry litter. Analyzing and comparing the different feedstock characteristics indicates that the differences in physical properties are largely responsible for varying energy generation capabilities from gas produced through gasification. Ultimately, it is determined that pine and hardwood are the best candidates for energy production through gasification, based on their high density, relatively low MC, and low ash content. Producer gas generated from pine gasification had the highest concentration of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane and resulted in the greatest energy output when combusted.

 

 

 

 

 


Keywords


biomass, gasification, syngas, wood, switchgrass, agriculture, waste

Full Text:

PDF

References


American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (1996)

Standard test method for gross calorific value of solid

fuel by the adiabatic bomb calorimeter. D2015. ASTM,

West Conshohocken, PA.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

(2007a) Standard test method for ash in wood. D1102-84.

ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

(2007b) Standard test methods for direct moisture content

measurement of wood and wood-base materials. D4442-

ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA.

Arshanitsa A, Barmina I, Telysheva G, Dizhbite T,

Andersone A, Zake M, Grants I (2009) The composition

and fuel characteristics of non-hydrolyzed residues

from wheat straw ethanol production. Eng for

Rural Dev 28:105-111.

Babu SP, Whaley TP (1992) IEA biomass thermal gasification

project. Biomass Bioenerg 2(1-6):299-306.

Boateng AA, Jung HG, Adler PR (2006) Pyrolysis of

energy crops including alfalfa stems, reed canarygrass,

and eastern gamagrass. Fuel 85(17-18):2450-2457.

Delong MM, Onischak M, Schmid M, Wiant B, Oelke E

(1995) Alfalfa stem feedstock for IGCC power system

fuel. Preprints of Papers, ACS Division of Fuel Chemistry

(3): 699-703.

Demirbas A (1997) Calculation of higher heating values of

biomass fuels. Fuel 76(5):431-434.

Engler C, Capereda S, Muktar S (2010) Assembly and testing

of an on-farm manure to energy conversion BMP for

animal waste pollution control. Texas Water Resources

Institute Technical Report No. 366: 1-21.

Environmetal Protection Agency (EPA) (1997) Determination

of carbon and nitrogen in sediments and particulates of

estuarine/coastal waters using elemental analysis. Method

0. US EPA, Cincinnati, OH.

Environmetal Protection Agency (EPA) (2000) Inductively

coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Method

C. US EPA, Cincinnati, OH.

Erlich C, Öhman M, Björnbom E, Fransson TH (2005)

Thermochemical characteristics of sugar cane bagasse

pellets. Fuel 84(5):569-575.

Erol M, Haykiri-Acma H, Kucukbayrak S (2010) Calorific

value estimation of biomass from their proximate analyses

data. Renew Energy 35(1):170-173.

Fantozzi F, Buratti C (2009) Biogas production from

different substrates in an experimental continuously

stirred tank reactor anaerobic digester. Biores Technol

(23):5783-5789.

Friedl A, Padouvas E, Rotter H, Varmuza K (2005) Prediction

of heating values of biomass fuel from elemental

composition. Anal Chimica Acta 544(1-2):191-198.

Garcia-Perez M, Adams TT, Goodrum JW, Geller D, Das

KC (2007) Production and fuel properties of pine chip

bio-oil/biodiesel blends. Energy Fuels 21(4):2363-2372.

Geyer WA, Walawender WP (1999) Biomass and gasification

properties of young catalpa trees. Wood Fiber

Sci 31(1):95-100.

Gil MV, Oulego P, Casal MD, Pevida C, Pis JJ, Rubiera F

(2010) Mechanical durability and combustion characteristics

of pellets from biomass blends. Biores Technol

(22):8859-8867.

Igathinathane C, Davis JD, Purswell JL, Columbus EP

(2010) Application of 3D scanned imaging methodology

for volume, surface area, and envelope density evaluation

of densified biomass. Biores Technol 101(11):4220-4227.

Kirubakaran V, Sivaramakrishnan V, Nalini R, Sekar T,

Premalatha M, Subramanian P (2009) A review on

gasification of biomass. Renew Sustain Energy Rev

(1):179-186.

Mani S, Tabil LG, Sokhansanj S (2006) Effects of compressive

force, particle size and moisture content on

mechanical properties of biomass pellets from grasses.

Biomass Bioenerg 30(7):648-654.

McKendry P (2002) Energy production from biomass (part 1):

Overview of biomass. Biores Technol 83:37-46.

Mukhtar S, Capareda S (2012) Manure to energy: Understanding processes, principles and jargon. Agricultural

Communications, Texas A&M University. http://tammi

.tamu.edu/ManurtoEnrgyE428.pdf (26 August 2015).

Obernberger I, Thek G (2004) Physical characterisation and

chemical composition of densified biomass fuels with

regard to their combustion behaviour. Biomass Bioenerg

(6):653-669.

Raveendran K, Ganesh A (1996) Heating value of biomass

and biomass pyrolysis products. Fuel 75(15):1715-1720.

Raveendran K, Ganesh A, Khilar KC (1995) Influence of

mineral matter on biomass pyrolysis characteristics. Fuel

(12):1812-1822.

Sensoz S (2003) Slow pyrolysis of wood barks from Pinus

brutia Ten. and product compositions. Biores Technol

(3):307-311.

Sheng C, Azevedo JLT (2005) Estimating the higher heating

value of biomass fuels from basic analysis data. Biomass

Bioenerg 28(5):499-507.

Tabil LG Jr, Sokhansanj S (1997) Bulk properties of alfalfa

grind in relation to its compaction characteristics.

Food & Process Engineering Inst. of ASAE 13(4):499-506.

Tavasoli A, Ahangari MG, Soni C, Dalai AK (2009) Production

of hydrogen and syngas via gasification of the

corn and wheat dry distiller grains (DDGS) in a fixed-bed

micro reactor. Fuel Process Technol 90(4):472-482.

Telmo C, Lousada J (2011) Heating values of wood pellets

from different species. Biomass Bioenerg 35(7):

-2639.

Young L, Pian CCP (2003) High-temperature, air-blown

gasification of dairy-farm wastes for energy production.

Energy 28(7):655-672.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.