• Linette Salvo Wood Drying Research Group; Department of Wood Engineering; Universidad del Bío Bío
  • Laura Leandro Instituto Costarricense de la Madera
  • Helga Contreras Department of Wood Engineering; Universidad del Bío Bío
  • Alain Cloutier Université Laval
  • Diego Elustondo Luleå Tekniska Universitet
  • Ruben A Ananias Wood Drying Research Group; Department of Wood Engineering; Universidad del Bío Bío http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3155-0457


Earlywood, fiber, latewood, normal density, ring-width, solid lumber, vessel, X-ray densitometry


This paper studies the relationship between apparent density and some anatomical properties of Eucalyptus nitens such as vessel frequency, vessel area, ring width, fiber cell wall thicknesses, and fiber length. The study involved 29 trees from 10 families of Eucalyptus nitens cut from a 17-yr-old plantation in Southern Chile. The properties were determined along the radial direction of the trees by using X-ray equipment and at selected positions through microscope and fiber quality analyzer equipment. The results showed that the anatomical properties of E. nitens did not change gradually from pith to bark, but they were better described by dividing the tree radius into three different wood-zones referred as inner-, middle-, and outer-wood. The apparent density of E. nitens was dependent of the vessel area, cell wall area, ring width, and latewood width. The correlation coefficient between apparent density and vessels area was negative and the correlation coefficient between apparent density and cell wall area, latewood ring width, and total ring width were positive. These means that E. nitens wood with lower density tended to have higher vessel area, and lower fiber cell wall area, ring width, and latewood width.



Ananías RA, Sepúlveda V, Pérez N, Leandro L, Salvo L,

Salinas C, Cloutier A, Elustondo DM (2014) Collapse

of Eucalyptus nitens wood after drying depending on

the radial location within the stem. Dry Technol 32(14):


Ananías RA, Díaz C, Leandro L (2009) Preliminary

study on shrinkage and collapse in Eucalyptus nitens

[in Spanish]. Maderas Cienc Tecnol 11(3):251-262.

Chaffey N (2002) Wood microscopical techniques.

Pages 17-40 in N Chaffey, ed. Wood formation in trees.

Chapter 3. Taylor & Francis, New York, NY.

Evans R, Kibblewhite RP, Stringer SL (2000) Variation

in microfibril angle, density and fiber orientation on

twenty-nine Eucalyptus nitens trees. Appita J 53(6):


Fichtler E, Worbes M (2012) Wood anatomical variables

in tropical trees and their relation to site conditions

and individual tree morphology. IAWA J 33(2):


Hoadley B (1995) Wood accurate results with simple tools.

Taunton Press. Newton, CT.

Hudson I, Wilson L, van Beveren K (1998) Vessel and

fibre property variation in Eucalyptus globulus and

Eucalyptus nitens: some preliminary results. IAWA J


Kibblewhite RP, Riddell MJC (2000) Wood and kraft

property variation among the logs of nine trees of Eucalyptus

nitens. Appita J 53(3):237-244.

Kibblewhite RP, Evans R, Riddell MJC, Shelbourne CJA

(2004). Changes density and wood-fibre properties with

height position in 15/16-year-old Eucalyptus nitens and

E. fastigata. Appita J 57(3):240-247.

Knapic S, Pirralho M, Louzada J, Pereira H (2014) Early

assessment of density features for 19 Eucalyptus species

using X-ray microdensitometry in a perspective of potential

biomass production. Wood Sci Technol 48(1):37-49.

Lachenbruch B, Moore JR, Evans R (2011) Radial variation

in wood structure and function in woody plants, and

hypotheses for its occurrence. Pages 121-164 in Meinzer

F, Lachenbruch B, Dawson TE (eds) Size and age related

changes in the tree structure and function. Tree physiology,

Vol 4, Springer, New York, NY.

Lausberg MJF, Gilchrist KF, Skipwith H (1995) Wood

properties of Eucalyptus nitens grown in New Zealand.

N Z J For Sci 25(2):147-163.

Leandro L, Ananías R, Cloutier A, Díaz-Vaz JE, Bermedo

M, Sanhueza R, Lasserre JP (2008) Preliminary study on

the relationship between internal checks in earlywood

within annual rings and the anatomical characteristics

and density of Eucalyptus nitens [in Spanish]. Interciencia


Mariani S, Poblete H, Torres M, Fernández A, Morales

E (2006) Effect of the height in the anatomical

and chemical properties of Eucalyptus nitens wood

(Deane & Maiden) from Chile [in Spanish]. In proceedings

of the X Reunión sobre Investigación y

Desarrollo de Productos Forestales, November 14-17,

, Concepción, Chile.

McKenzie HM, Shelbourne CJA, Kimberley MO,

McKinley RB, Britton RA (2003) Processing young

plantation-grown Eucalyptus nitens for solid-wood products.

: Predicting product quality from tree, increment

core, disc, and 1-m billet properties. New Zealand, New

Zealand. J For Sci 33(1):79-113.

McKimm J (1985) Characteristics of the wood of young

fast-grown trees of Eucalyptus nitens Maiden with special

reference to provenance variation. I. Variations in

growth, strain and density associated with provenance.

Aust For Res 15:207-218.

McKimm RJ, Ilic Y (1987) Characteristics of the wood

of young fast grown trees of Eucalyptus nitens Maiden

with special reference to provenance variation. III:

Anatomical and physical characteristic. Aust For Res


McKinley RB, Shelbourne CJA, Low CB, Penellum B,

Kimberley MO (2002) Wood properties of young

Eucalyptus nitens, E. globulus, and E. maidenii in

Northland, New Zealand, New Zealand. J For Sci


Medhurst J, Downes J, Ottenschlaeger M, Harwood C,

Evans R, Beadle C (2012) Intra-specific competition

and the radial development of wood density, microfibril

angle and modulus of elasticity in plantation-grown

Eucalyptus nitens. Trees (Berl) 26:1771-1780.

Purnell RC (1988) Variation in wood properties of Eucalyptus

nitens in a provenance trial on the eastern

Transvaal highveld in South Africa. S Afr For J


Ramírez M, Rodríguez J, Peredo M, Valuenzuela S,

Mendonça R (2009) Wood anatomy and biometric parameters

variation of Eucalyptus globulus clones. Wood Sci

Technol 43:131-141.

Rebolledo P, Salvo L, Contreras H, Cloutier A, Ananias

RA (2013) Variation of internal checks related with anatomical

structure and density in Eucalyptus nitens wood.

Wood Fiber Sci 45(3):279-286.

Saranpää P (2003) Wood density and growth.

Pages 87-117 in JR Barnett, G Jeronimidis, eds. Wood

Quality and its Biological Basis. Blackwell Publishing,

Victoria, Australia.

Sepulveda V, Perez N, Salinas C, Salvo L, Elustondo D,

Ananias RA (2016) The development of moisture and

strain profiles during pre-drying of Eucalyptus nitens.

Dry Technol 34(4):428-436.

Shelbourne CJA, Nicholas ID, McKinley RB, Low CB,

McConnochie RM, Lausberg MJF (2002) Wood density

and internal checking of young Eucalyptus nitens in

New Zealand as affected by site and height up the tree.

N Z J For Sci 32(3):357-379.

Schweingruber FH (2007) Wood structure and environment.

Springer Series in Wood Science, New York, NY.


Zobel BJ, van Buijtenen JP (1989) Wood variation its

causes and control. Springer Series in Wood Science,

New York, NY. 376 pp.






Research Contributions