Removing Lignin from Wood with White-Rot Fungi and Digestibility of Resulting Wood
AbstractNine white-rot fungi were examined for their ability to remove lignin faster than they removed polysaccharides from aspen and from birch wood. One of the fungi was similarly examined with southern pine, Douglas-fir, and Sitka spruce. During decay most of the fungi decreased the lignin content of the aspen and the birch; that is, they removed a larger percentage of the lignin than of the polysaccharides. Lignin removal was always accompanied by removal of polysaccharides, but lignin removal did not correlate with removal of any particular component of the polysaccharides. During decay lignin was usually more selectively removed in the first few percentages of weight loss than were the polysaccharides. Fomes ulmarius removed lignin faster from southern pine, Sitka spruce, aspen, and birch than it did from Douglas-fir. The decayed woods with less lignin were more digestible by a mixture of polysaccharidases and by rumen fluid than were the control samples. Digestibility was inversely related to lignin content.
American Society for Testing and Materials. 1962. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Part 6. Standard method for accelerated laboratory test of natural decay resistance of woods. Designation D2017-63.nBender, F., D. P. Heaney, and A. Bowden. 1970. Potential of steamed wood as a feed for ruminants. For. Prod. J. 20: 36-41.nCowling, E. B. 1961. Comparative biochemistry of the decay of sweetgum sapwood by white-rot fungi. U. S. Dep. Agric. Tech. Bull. No. 1258, 79 p.nHiguchi, T., I. Kawamura, and H. Kawamura. 1955. Properties of the lignin in decayed wood. J. Jap. For. Soc. 37: 298-302.nKawase, K. J. 1962. Chemical components of wood decayed under natural conditions and their properties. J. Fac. Agric. Hokkaido Univ. 52: 186-245.nJohnson, D. B., W. E. Moore, and L. C. Zank. 1961. Spectrophotometric determination of lignin in small wood samples Tappi 44: 793-798.nKirk, T. K., and A. Kelman. 1965. Lignin degradation as related to the phenoloxidases of selected wood-decaying Basidiomycetes. Phytopath. 55: 739-745.nMeier, H. 1965. On the chemistry of reaction wood. Symposium Zurich. Chemie et biochemie de la lignin, cellulose, et hemicellulose. Zurich, Switzerland, p. 405.nMellenberger, R. W., L. D. Satter, M. A. Millett, and A. J. Baker. 1970. An in vitro technique for estimating digestibility of treated and untreated wood. J. Anim. Sci. 30: 1005-1011.nMillett, M. A., A. J. Baker, W. C. Feist, R. W. Mellenberger, and L. D. Satter. 1970. Modifying wood to increase its in vitro digestibility. J. Anim. Sci. 31: 781-788.nMoore, W. E., and D. B. Johnson. 1967. Procedures for the chemical analysis of wood and wood products (as used at the U. S. For. Prod. Lab.), For. Serv., U. S. Dep. Agric. Madison, Wis.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.