WOOD DENSITY AND EXTRACTIVE CONTENT VARIATION AMONG JAPANESE LARCH (LARIX KAEMPFERI, [LAMB.]CARR.) PROGENIES/PROVENANCES TRIALS IN EASTERN CANADA
Keywords:Japanese larch, basic density, wood extractives, provenance trial, wood quality
AbstractTwelve years old Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi, [Lamb.]Carr.) stems of 20 different progenies and/or provenances were obtained. Two disks of 5 cm thickness were cut at approximately 0.25 m and 2.7 m from the ground. Two wedges were cut from each disk to determine basic density at these two heights. The remaining log was used to obtain standard samples for the determination of basic and oven-dry densities closest to the bark. The adjacent material of standard samples was used to produce sawdust for the determination of hot-water extractive content. Basic and oven-dry densities were then corrected by the mass of extractives. Wedge basic density showed a significant variation along the stem. Density was higher at 0.4 m than at 2.75 m in height. However, no significant effect of progeny/provenance was found, nor for basic and oven-dry densities. Once these densities were corrected, the progeny/provenance showed a significant effect which allowed a progeny grouping by density. Hot-water extractive content was also significantly affected by the progeny/provenance and it varied between 2.9 to 6.9%. Progeny 7280 would have an interesting potential among progeny/provenance for lumber and pulping uses as it showed the lowest extractive content, the highest corrected densities and high growth rate. In general, corrected densities and extractive content would be more appropriate for a preliminary selection of the progenies/provenances according to the final utilization. Further studies of other wood properties would be necessary to confirm these results.
André S, Classen B, Gabius H-J (2015) Studies on unprocessed and acid-treated arabinogalactan from larch as an inhibitor of glycan binding of a plant toxin and biomedically relevant human lectins. Planta Med 81:1146-1153
American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) (2001) , Standard test methods for water solubility of wood. D1110-84 American Society for Testing and Materials. West Conshohocken, PA.
American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) (2014) D1 Standard test methods for small clear specimens of timber. D143-14. American Society for Testing and Materials. West Conshohocken, PA.
Babkin VA (2015) Theoretical and practical development of new drugs for medicine based on larch biomass extracts. Russ J Bioorg Chem 41:679-685
Beaudoin M, Masanga BO, Poliquin J, Beauregard RL (1989) Physical and mechanical properties of plantation grown tamarack. Forest Prod J 39:5-10
Campbell WG, Bryant SA (1937) The sampling of wood for analysis, with particular reference to the Australian eucalypts. Biochem J 31:748-754
Charron S, Jourez B, Marchal M, Hebert J (2003) Comparison study of physical and mechanical characteristics of European (Larix decimal Mill.), Japanese (Larix kaempferi (Lambert) Carr.) and hybrid (Larix x eurolepis Henry) larch woods. biotechnology Agron Soc Environ 7(1):5-16 [In French].
Chui YH, MacKinnon-Peters G (1995) Wood properties of exotic larch grown in eastern Canada and north-eastern United States. Forest Chron 71:639-646
Clarke, A, Anderson R, Stone B (1979) Review: Form and function of arabinogalactans and arabinogalactan-poteins. Phys Chem Chem Phys 18(4):521-540.
Cote WA, Day AC, Simson BW, Timell TE (1966) Studies on larch arabinogalactan 1. Distribution of arabinogalactan in larch wood. Holzforschung 20(6):178-192.
Dion C, Chappuis E, Ripoll C (2016) Does larch arabinogalactan enhance immune function? A review of mechanistic and clinical trials. Nutr Metab 13:28. doi:10.1186/s12986-016-0086-x
Ermakova MF, Chistyakova AK, Shchukina LV, Pshenichnikova TA, Medvedeva EN, Neverova NA, Belovezhets LA, Babkin VA (2010) Effect of arabinogalactan isolated from Siberian larch on the baking value of soft wheat flour and bread quality. Russ J Bioorganic Chem 36(7):951-956.
Farrar JL (1995) Trees of the northern United States and Canada. Fitzhenry and Whiteside Ltd, Ottawa, Canada. 502 pp.
Fitzpatrick A, Roberts A, Witherly S (2004) Larch arabinogalactan: A novel and multifunctional natural product. Agro Food Ind Hi-Tech 15(1):30-32.
Fowler DP, Simpson JD, Park YS, Schneider MH (1988) Yield and wood properties of 25-year-old Japanese larch of different provenance in eastern Canada. Forest Chron 64:475-479
Gasilova ER, Matveeva GN, Aleksandrova GP, Sukhov BG, Trofimov BA (2013) Colloidal aggregates of Pd nano-particles supported by Larch Arabinogalactan. J Phys Chem B 1177):2134-2141.
Gierlinger N, Jacques D, Schwanninger M, Wimmer R, Pâques LE (2004) Heartwood extractives and lignin content of different larch species (Larix sp.) and relationships to brown-rot decay-resistance. Trees-Struct Funct 18:230-236
Grabner M, Wimmer R, Gierlinger N, Evans R, Downes G (2005) Heartwood extractives in larch and effects on X-ray densitometry. Can J For Res 35(12):2781-2786.
Heger L (1974) Longitudinal variation of specific gravity in stems of black spruce balsam fir and lodgepole pine. Can J For Res 4(3):321-326.
Hernández RE (2007) Influence of accessory substances, wood density and interlocked grain on the compressive properties of hardwoods. Wood Sci Technol 41:249-265
Isebrands JG, Hunt CM (1975) Growth and wood properties of rapid-grown Japanese larch. Wood Fiber Sci 7:119-128
Keith CT, Chauret G (1988) Basic wood properties of European larch from fast-growth plantations in eastern Canada. Can J Forest Res 18:1325-1331
Kubo T, Kaburagi J (1973) Basic studies on wood properties in Japanese Larch (Larix leptolepis) I. The distribution of water-soluble extractives and wood properties in Japanese Larch. Bulletin of the Experiment Forests, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology 10:108-115 [In Japanese]
Loo J, Fowler DP, Schneider MH (1982) Geographic variation in specific gravity among Japanese larch from different provenances. Wood Fiber Sci 14:281-286
Okkonen EA, Wahlgren HE, Maeglin RR (1972) Relationships of specific gravity to tree height in commercially important species Forest Prod J 22:37-42
Panshin AJ, De Zeeuw C (1980) Textbook of wood technology: structure, identification, properties and uses of the commercial woods of the United States and Canada. McGraw-Hill, New York. 722 pp.
Park YS, Fowler DP (1983) A provenance test of Japanese larch in eastern Canada, including comparative data on European larch and tamarack. Silvae Genet 32:96-101
Perron M (2011) Le melees hybride du quebec: performant et race. Note de recherche forestiere n3. Ministere des Forests, de la Faunce et des Parcs, Quebec, 2pp [In French]
Posey CE, Bridgwat FE, Walker N (1970) Effect of seed origin on tracheid length, specific gravity, and volume of shortleaf pine in Oklahoma. For Sci 16:66-70
Rainville A, Desponts M, Beaudoin R, Périnet P, Mottet M-J, Perron M (2003) L’amélioration des arbres au Québec : un outil de performance industrielle et environnementale. Note de recherche forestière n° 127. Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs, Québec. 8 pp. [In French]
Riede L, Grube B, Gruenwald J (2013) Larch arabinogalactan effects on reducing incidence of upper respiratory infections. Curr Med, Res Open 29(3):251-258.
Sairanen P (1982) Properties and usages of larch in the mechanical forest industry in Soviet Union. Metsantutkimuslaitoksen tiedonantoja, 72 [In Finnish].
Saranpää P (2003) Wood density and growth. Pages 87-117 in Barnett JR and Jeronimidis G, eds. Wood quality and its biological basis. Blackwell, Oxford.
Spangberg K, Nylinder M )1997) Development of a method for sorting Picea babies pulpwood with respect to basic density. Scan J Fr Res 12(1):65-69.
Srinivasan U, Ung T, Taylor A, Cooper PA (1999) Natural durability and waterborne preservative treat ability of tamarack. Forest Prod J 49(1):82-87.
Stipanicic A (1975) L’amélioration du genre mélèze (Larix sp.) au service de la recherche du Ministère des terres et forêts. Note de recherche forestière n° 20. Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs, Québec. 37 pp. [In French].
Taras MA, Saucier JR (1967) Influence of extractives on specific gravity of southern pine. Forest Prod J 17:97-99
Vallée G, Stipanicic A (1982) Growth and performance of larch plantation. Pages 47-63 in Proc Larch Symposium, potential for the future, 9 November 1982, Toronto, ON
Verville A (1981) Étude physico-mécanique de quelques espèces du genre Larix en plantation. MS thesis, Université Laval, Quebec. 115 pp.
Zhang SY, Koubaa A (2008) Exotic larches. Pages 9.1-9.17 in Softwoods of Eastern Canada: Their silvics, characteristics, manufacturing, and end-uses. Special Publication SP-526E. FPInnovations, Quebec.
Zhu JJ, Nakano T, Hirakawa Y (2000) Effects of radial growth rate on selected indices for juvenile and mature wood of the Japanese larch. J Wood Sci 46:417-422
Zobel B, Van Buijtenen JP (1989) Wood variation: its causes and control. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 363 pp.
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.