Control of Brown Stain in Sugar Pine with Environmentally Acceptable Chemicals


  • Nancy D. Oldham
  • W. Wayne Wilcox


Kiln brown stain, chemical control, sodium azide, phosphoric acid, chelating agents, antioxidants, Pinus lambertiana


Because of the hazards in using sodium azide for controlling brown stain, a less hazardous chemical was sought. Phosphoric acid was found to be the most successful treatment of the chemicals screened. A sufficient concentration of an iron chelating agent, in conjunction with lowered pH, resulted in a reduction in brown stain. Antioxidants were found to be ineffective.


Arganbright, D. G. 1972. The effects of certain sap stain and mold control formulations on brown stain development and drying characteristics of sugar pine lumber. UCFPL Tech. Rep. No. 35.01.108.nBailey, I. W. 1910. Oxidizing enzymes and their relation to "sap stain" in lumber. Bot. Gaz., 50:142-147.nBonner, J. 1950. Plant biochemistry. Academic Press Inc., New York.nCatterick, J. A., and G. B. Gillies. 1966. Production control of brown stain. For. Prod. J. 16(11):16.nCech, M. Y. 1966. Brown stain in white pine. For. Prod. J. 16(11):23-27.nCochrane, V. W. 1958. Physiology of fungi. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.nHubert, E. E. 1926. The brown stain of lumber. Timberman 27(7):44-50.nHulme, M. A. 1975. Control of brown stain in eastern white pine with alkaline salts. For. Prod. J. 25(8):38-41.nLundberg, W. O. 1961-62. Autoxidation and Antioxidants, vol. I and II. Interscience Publishers, New York.nMahler, H. R., and E. H. Cordes. 1966. Biological chemistry. Harper and Row, New York.nMillett, M. A. 1952. Chemical brown stain in sugar pine. For. Prod. J. 2(5):232-236.nNeilands, J. B., and P. K. Stumpf. 1955. Outlines of enzyme chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.nShields, J. K., R. L. Desai, and M. R. Clarke. 1973. Control of brown stain in kiln-dried eastern white pine. For. Prod. J. 23(10):28-30.nSpector, W. S. (ED.) 1956. Handbook of biological data. W. B. Saunders Co., Phila., Pa.nStanden, A. (Exec. ed.) 1963. Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.nStecher, P. G. (ed.) 1960. The Merck index of chemicals and drugs, 7th Ed., Merck and Co., Inc., Rahway, New Jersey.nStout, A. W. 1950. Storage factors and the occurrence of chemical brown stain in sugar pine. Western Pine Assoc. Res. Note No. 4.5113.nStutz, R. E. 1959. Control of brown stain in sugar pine with sodium azide. For. Prod. J. 9(12):459-463.nStutz, R. E., P. Koch, and M. L. Oldham. 1961. Control of brown stain in eastern white pine. For. Prod. J. 11(6):258-260.n






Research Contributions