Wood and Lumber Properties from Unthinned and Precommercially Thinned Black Spruce Plantations
Keywords:Precommercial thinning, thinning intensity, black spruce, plantation, wood properties, lumber bending properties, visual grading, MSR lumber
AbstractThis study examined wood and lumber bending properties of 44-yr-old plantation black spruce subjected to precommercial thinning (PCT) at age 23. PCT and tree diameter at breast height (DBH) had little effect on heartwood content and the No. 2 & Better lumber grade yield. With increasing DBH of 10 - 18 cm, basic wood density (Db), lumber bending modulus of elasticity (MOE), and modulus of rupture (MOR) decreased by 8.1, 15.8 and 19.0%, respectively. The Db, MOE, MOR, and machine stress-rated (MSR) lumber yield from the stand with 35% basal area removal (T35) were lower than those of the control (T0) and the stand with 20% basal area removal (T20). The T20 had no significant effect on the Db, MOE, MOR, and MSR lumber yield. Juvenile wood content had a negative effect on lumber bending properties. The percentage of lumber pieces complying with the design values decreased with increasing thinning intensity. On average, MOE from T0, T20, and T35 were 10.9, 12.1, and 19.5% lower, respectively, than that from mature natural black spruce stands and 19.6, 18.0, and 10.8% higher, respectively, than that from wider-spaced black spruce plantations. MOE from T0 was also 14.5% higher than that from 50 - 60-yr-old natural jack pine stands. This study indicates that it is possible to produce high-quality lumber from dense black spruce plantations with appropriate thinning.
Alteyrac J, Zhang SY, Cloutier A, Ruel JC (2005) Influence of stand density on ring width and wood density at different heights in black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.]. Wood Fiber Sci 37(1):83 - 94.nASTM (2003). Annual book of ASTM standards, Vol. 04.10. Wood. ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA. 784 pp.nBarbour RJ, Fayle DCF, Chauret G, Cook J, Karsh MB, Ran SK (1994) Breast-height relative density and radial growth in mature jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) for 38 yrs after thinning. Can J Res 24:2439 - 2447.nBarrett JD, Kellogg RM (1991) Bending strength and stiffness of second-growth Douglas-fir dimension lumber. Forest Prod J 41(10):35 - 43.nBarrett JD, Lau W (1994) Canadian lumber properties. Canadian Wood Council, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 346 pp.nBiblis EJ, Carino HF, Brinker R, McKee CW (1995) Effect of stand density on flexural properties of lumber from two 35-yr-old loblolly pine plantations. Wood Fiber Sci 27(1):25 - 33.nBier H (1986) Log quality and strength and stiffness of structural lumber. NZ For Sci 16:176 - 186.nBurns J, Puettmann KJ, Perala D (1996) Strip thinning and spacing increases tree growth of young black spruce. North J Appl For 13:69 - 72.nCave ID, Walker JCF (1994) Stiffness of wood in fastgrown plantation softwoods: The influence of microfibril angle. Forest Prod J 44(5):43 - 48.nClark A III, Saucier JR, Baldwin VC, Bower DR (1994) Effect of initial spacing and thinning on lumber grade, yield, and strength of loblolly pine. Forest Prod J 44(11/12):14 - 20.nCown DJ (1973) Effects of severe thinning and pruning treatments on the intrinsic wood properties of radiata pine. NZ For Sci 3:379 - 389.nDuchesne I (2006) Effect of rotation age on lumber grade yield, bending strength and stiffness in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) natural stands. Wood Fiber Sci 38 (1):84 - 94.nErickson HD, Harison AT (1974) Douglas-fir wood quality studies, Part I: Effects of age and stimulated growth on wood density and anatomy. Wood Sci Technol 8:207 - 226.nEvans JW II, Senft JF, Green DW (2000) Juvenile wood effect in red alder: Analysis of physical and mechanical data to delineate juvenile and mature wood zones. Forest Prod J 50(7/8):75 - 87.nFleming RL, Mossa DS, Marek GT (2005) Upland black spruce stand development 17 yrs after cleaning and precommercial thinning. For Chron 81:31 - 41.nGominho J, Pereira H (2005) The influence of tree spacing in heartwood content in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Wood Fiber Sci 37(4):582 - 590.nGrant DJ, Anton A, Lind P (1984) Bending strength, stiffness and stress-grade of structural Pinus radiate: Effects of knots and timber density. NZ For Sci 14:331 - 348.nGuller B (2007) The effects of thinning treatments on density, MOE, MOR and maximum crushing strength of Pinus brutiaTen. wood. Ann Sci 64(4):467 - 475.nHuang BL, Lü CQ, Meng YC, Zhang LF (2000) Effects of different planting densities on growth, output and wood properties of Eucalyptus urophylla.Scientia Silvae Sinicae 36(1):81 - 90.nKang KY, Zhang SY, Mansfield S (2004) The effect of initial spacing on wood density, fibre and pulp properties in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.). Holzforschung 58 (5):455 - 463.nKennedy RW (1995) Coniferous wood quality in the future: Concerns and strategies. Wood Sci Technol 29 (5):321 - 338.nKoga S, Zhang SY, Bégin J (2002) Impact of precommercial thinning on annual growth and wood density in balsam fir. Wood Fiber Sci 34(4):625 - 642.nKoponen S (1997) Effect of wood micro-structure on mechanical and moisture physical properties. Pages 348 - 366 in BG Butterfield, ed. Microfibril angle in wood. Proc IAWA/IUFRO International Workshop on the Significance of Microfibril angle to Wood Quality, Westport, New Zealand.nLarson D, Mirth R, Wolfe R (2004) Evaluation of smalldiameter ponderosa pine logs in bending. Forest Prod J 54(12):52 - 58.nLemieux H, Beaudoin M, Zhang SY, Groudin F (2002) Improving structural lumber quality in a sample of Picea mariana logs sawn according to the knots. Wood Fiber Sci 34:266 - 275.nMacPeak MD, Burkart LF, Weldon D (1990) Comparison of grade, yield, and mechanical properties of lumber produced from young fast-grown and older slow-grown planted slash pine. Forest Prod J 40 (1):11 - 14.nMalinauskas A (1999) The influence of the initial density and site conditions on Scots pine growth and wood quality. Baltic Forestry 5(2):8 - 19.nMcAlister RH, Clark A III, Saucier JR (1997) Effect of initial spacing on mechanical properties of lumber sawn from unthinned slash pine at age 40. Forest Prod J 47 (7/8):107 - 109.nMcClain KM Morris DM, Hills SC, Buss LJ (1994) The effect of initial spacing on growth and crown development for planted northern conifers: 37-yr results. For Chron 70:174 - 182.nMiddleton GR, Jozska LA, Palka LC, Munro BD, Sen P (1995) Lodgepole pine product yields related to differences in stand density. Special Publication—Forintek Canada Corp. No. SP-35. Pages ix, 31, 65.nMinin NS, Moskaleva SA (1986) Effect of thinning on the physical and mechanical properties of wood in Scots pine plantations. Lesno Zhurnal 2:68 - 71.nNational Lumber Grading Authority (NLGA) (2003) SPS 2-2003, Special products standard for machine graded lumber. National Lumber Grades Authority, New Westminster, BC, Canada.nPape R (1999) Influence of thinning and tree diameter class on the development of basic density and annual ring width in Picea abies.Scand J Fr Res 14:27 - 37.nPrégent G, Bertrand V, Charette L (1996) Preliminary yield tables for black spruce plantations in Quebec. Mémoire de Recherche Forestière, Ministère des Ressources Naturelles, Québec, Canada. No. 118. Pages xiv, 70.nSAS Institute Inc (1999) SAS User's guide: Statistics. Version 8. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC.nShepard RK, Shottafer JE (1990) Effect of early release on specific gravity and wood yield of black spruce. Forest Prod J 40(1):18 - 20.nSmith D (1968) Wood quality of loblolly pine after thinning. USA Forest Serv. Res. Paper 89.nWells ED (1994) Effects of planting spacing and refertilization on growth and nutrition of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] planted on a minerotrophic peatland in Newfoundland, Canada. Can J Res 24 (7):1302 - 1311.nWolcott MP, Shepard RK, Shottafer JE (1987) Age and thinning effects on wood properties of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.). Technical Bulletin, Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 17. Pages iv, 17.nYang KC (1994) Impact of spacing on width and basal area of juvenile and mature wood in Picea mariana and Picea glauca.Wood Fiber Sci 26(4):479 - 488.nYang KC (2002) Impact of spacing on juvenile wood and mature wood properties of white spruce (Picea glauca).Taiwan Journal of Forest Science 17(1):13 - 29.nYang KC, Hazenberg G (1992) Impact of spacing on sapwood and heartwood in Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P. and Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss. Wood Fiber Sci 24 (3):330 - 336.nZhang SY, Chauret G (2000) Impact of initial spacing on tree and wood characteristics, product quality and value recovery in black spruce. CFS Rep No. 1944, Forintek Canada Corp., Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada. 40 pp.nZhang SY, Chauret G, Ren HQ, Desjardins R (2002) Impact of initial spacing on plantation black spruce lumber grade yield, bending properties, and MSR yield. Wood Fiber Sci 34(3):460 - 475.nZhang SY, Chauret G, Swift DW, Duchesne I (2006) Effects of precommercial thinning on tree growth and lumber quality in a jack pine stand in New Brunswick, Canada. Can J Res 36:945 - 952.nZhang SY, Zhong Y (1992) Structure-property relationship of wood in East-Liaoning oak. Wood Sci Technol 26:139 - 149.nZhou H, Smith I (1991) Factors influencing bending properties of white spruce lumber. Wood Fiber Sci 23 (4):483 - 500.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.