Morphological Characteristics of Cellulose Nanofibril-Filled Polypropylene Composites
Keywords:Cellulose nanofiber, microfibrillated cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, scanning electron microscopy, plastic deformation, brittle deformation
AbstractNano-sized cellulose fillers (cellulose nanofiber [CNF] and microfibrillated cellulose [MFC]) and a micron-sized cellulose filler (microcrystalline cellulose [MCC]) were used as fillers in polypropylene (PP) composites. Cellulose-filled PP composite samples were manufactured and tested, and their morphological properties were examined to describe morphological characteristics of fracture surfaces at different filler loading levels after mechanical testing. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed polymer stretching as the major component causing plastic deformation in fracture surfaces of CNF- and MCC-filled composites, whereas analysis of MFC-filled composites exhibited brittle deformation. Individual CNF and MFC fibers were separated and dispersed in the matrix polymer, although considerable agglomeration was observed beyond 6% (wt) filler loading, which resulted in sustained tensile and flexural strength. Mechanical property test results showed that in the case of CNF and MFC, composites sustained considerable tensile and flexural strength up to 10% (wt) filler loading, whereas tensile and flexural strength of MCC-filled composites decreased continuously.
Abe K, Iwamoto S, Yano H (2007) Obtaining cellulose nanofibers with a uniform width of 15 nm from wood. Biomacromolecules 8(10):3276-3278.nAzizi Samir MAS, Alloin F, Dufresne A (2005) Review of recent research into cellulosic whiskers, their properties and their application in nanocomposite field. Biomacromolecules 6(2):612-626.nBondeson D, Mathew A, Oksman K (2006) Optimization of the isolation of nanocrystals from microcrystalline cellulose by acid hydrolysis. Cellulose 13(2):171-180.nCheng Q, Wang SQ, Rials TG, Lee SH (2007) Physical and mechanical properties of polyvinyl alcohol and polypropylene composite materials reinforced with fibril aggregates isolated from regenerated cellulose fibers. Cellulose 14(6):593-602.nDalmas F, Chazeau L, Gauthier C, Cavaille JY, Dendievel R (2006) Large deformation mechanical behavior of flexible nanofiber filled polymer nanocomposites. Polymer (Guildf) 47(8):2802-2812.nDufresne A (2006) Comparing the mechanical properties of high performances polymer nanocomposites from biological sources. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 6(2):322-330.nDufresne A, Dupeyre D, Vignon MR (2000) Cellulose microfibrils from potato tuber cells: Processing and characterization of starch-cellulose microfibril composites. J Appl Polym Sci 76(14):2080-2092.nEichhorn SJ, Young RJ (2001) The Young's modulus of a microcrystalline cellulose. Cellulose 8(3):197-207.nEspert A, Vilaplana F, Karlsson S (2004) Comparison of water absorption in natural cellulosic fibres from wood and one-year crops in polypropylene composites and its influence on their mechanical properties. Compos Part A-Appl S 35(11):1267-1276.nGarces JM, Moll DJ, Bicerano J, Fibiger R, McLeod DG (2000) Polymeric nanocomposites for automotive applications. Adv Mater (Deerfield Beach Fla) 12(23):1835-1839.nGoussé C, Chanzy H, Cerrada ML, Fleury E (2004) Surface silylation of cellulose microfibrils: Preparation and rheological properties. Polymer (Guildf) 45(5):1569-1575.nHubbe MA, Rojas OJ, Lucia LA, Sain M (2008) Cellulosic nanocomposites: A review. Bioresources 3(3):929-980.nInoue T, Suzuki T (1995) Selective crosslinking reaction in polymer blends. III. The effects of the crosslinking of dispersed EPDM particles on the impact behavior of PP/EPDM blends. J Appl Polym Sci 56(9):1113-1125.nKvien I (2007) Characterization of biopolymer based nanocomposites. PhD thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.nKvien I, Tanem BS, Oksman K (2005) Characterization of cellulose whiskers and their nanocomposites by atomic force and electron microscopy. Biomacromolecules 6(6): 3160-3165.nMarcovich NE, Auad ML, Bellesi NE, Nutt SR, Aranguren MI (2006) Cellulose micro/nanocrystals reinforced polyurethane. J Mater Res 21(4):870-881.nOksman K, Clemons C (1998) Mechanical properties and morphology of impact modified polypropylene-wood flour composites. J Appl Polym Sci 67(9):1503-1513.nPandey JK, Kumar AP, Misra M, Mohanty AK, Drzal LT, Singh RP (2005) Recent advances in biodegradable nanocomposites. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 5(4):497-526.nPetersson L, Kvien I, Oksman K (2007) Structure and thermal properties of poly(lactic acid)/cellulose whiskers nanocomposite materials. Compos Sci Technol 67 (11-12):2535-2544.nPremalal HGB, Ismail H, Baharin A (2002) Comparison of the mechanical properties of rice husk powder filled polypropylene composites with talc filled polypropylene composites. Polym Test 21(7):833-839.nWu Q, Henriksson M, Liu X, Berglund LA (2007) A high strength nanocomposite based on microcrystalline cellulose and polyurethane. Biomacromolecules 8(12): 3687-3692.nYang HS, Gardner DJ (2011) Mechanical properties of cellulose nanofibril-filled polypropylene composites. Wood Fiber Sci (In Press).nYang HS, Kim HJ, Park HJ, Lee BJ, Hwang TS (2007) Effect of compatibilizing agents on rice-husk flour reinforced polypropylene composites. Compos Struct 77(1): 45-55.nYang HS, Kim HJ, Son J, Park HJ, Lee BJ, Hwang TS (2004) Rice-husk flour filled polypropylene composites; mechanical and morphological study. Compos Struct 63(3-4):305-312.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.