Evaluation of Fungi Toxic Activity of Tannins and a Tannin-Copper Complex from the Mesocarp of <i>Cocos Nucifera</i> Linn


  • María Guadalupe Lomelí Ramírez
  • Héctor Guillermo Ochoa Ruiz
  • Fernando Navarro Arzate
  • Martha Alejandra Cerpa Gallegos
  • Salvador García Enriquez


<i>Cocos nucifera</i> Linn, tannin, tannin-copper complex, decay, xylophagus fungi


The fibrous envelope of the coconut tree is an agroindustrial waste product that possesses relevant properties, such as a high resistance to biological degradation, because of its phenolic compound composition. In this study, the fungitoxic activity of tannins and a tannin-copper complex from the mesocarp of Cocos nucifera Linn was conducted. An extract from the coconut mesocarp was obtained in acidic media using a 2.0 wt % solution of NaHSO3. Bioassays were conducted on alder wood (Alnus acuminata ssp. glabrata H.B.K.) using two types of aqueous solutions: 1) crude extract from the coconut mesocarp diluted at several concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 wt %); and 2) a tannin-copper complex formed in two stages by impregnation of the alder wood samples, first with the coconut mesocarp extract solutions followed by addition of a CuCl2 solution. The fungitoxic capacity of the tannin and tannin-copper complex solutions was evaluated by means of bioassays with Trametes versicolor (L. ex. Fr.) Pilát according to ASTM D 1413-07. The bioassays showed poor fungal inhibition for the wood samples impregnated with the crude extract solutions. However, the tannin-copper complex solutions showed greater fungal inhibition. Retention values of 4.03 and 1.76 kg m-3 were obtained. These values revealed high fungal inhibition for Trametes versicolor.


ALCA (1970) Methods of sampling and analysis. American Leather Chemists Association, Cincinnati, OH. 28 pp.nASTM (2007) D1413-07 E1. Standard test method for wood preservatives by laboratory soil-block cultures. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.nAWPA (2006) E11-06. Standard method of determining the leachability of wood preservatives. American Wood Protection Association, Birmingham, AL.nBariska M, Conradie WE, Pizzi A (1986) SEM [scanning electron microscopy] of flavonoid tannins interference with inorganic water-borne preservatives. Holz Roh Werkst 44(6):222.nBinbuga N, Ruhs C, Hasty JK, Henry WP, Schultz TP (2008) Developing environmentally benign and effective organic wood preservatives by understanding the biocidal and non-biocidal properties of extractives in naturally durable heartwood. Holzforschung 62(3):264-269.nEberhardt TL, Young RA (1994) Conifer seed cone pro-anthocyanidin polymers: Characterization by 13C NMR spectroscopy and determination of antifungal activities. J Agric Food Chem 42(8):1704-1708.nFitzgerald MG, Line MA (1990) Some chemical and microbial aspects of decay resistance of huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii [Hook. f.], C. J. Quinn). Holzforschung 44(5):335-338.nFreeman MH, Mcintyre CR (2008) A comprehensive review of copper-based wood preservatives. Forest Prod J 58(11):6-27.nGutierrez J (1992) Tannic power evaluation of tannin husk coconut substances. Chemical Engineering undergraduate thesis. Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Guadalajara, Mexico, Guadalajara, Mexico.nHart JH (1989) The role of wood exudates and extractives in protecting wood from decay. Pages 861-880 in JW Rowe, ed. Natural products of woody plant. Springer-Verlag Co., Berlin, Germany.nHarun J, Labosky P (1985) Antitermitic and antifungal properties of selected bark extractives. Wood Fiber Sci 17(3):327-335.nHelm RF, Ranatunga TD, Chandra M (1997) Lignin-hydrolyzable tannin interactions in wood. J Agric Food Chem 45(8):3100-3106.nHemingway RW (1989) Recent developments in the use of tannins as specialty chemicals. Pages 377-386 in Proc International TAPPI Symposium on Wood and Pulping Chemistry, May 22-25. NC State University, Raleigh, NC.nHumar M, Kalan P, Sentjure M, Pohleven F (2005) Influence of carboxylic acids on fixation of copper in wood impregnated with copper amine based preservatives. Wood Sci Technol 39:685-693.nHumar M, Petric M, Pohleven F, Sentjurc M, Kalan P (2002) Changes in EPR spectra of wood impregnated with copper-based preservatives during exposure to several wood-rotting fungi. Holzforschung 56(3):229-238.nHumar M, Zlindra D, Pohleven F (2007) Influence of wood species, treatment method and biocides concentration on leaching of copper-ethanolamine preservatives. Build Environ 42(2):578-583.nKai Y (1991) Chemistry of extractives. Pages 215-255 in DN-S Hon and N Shiraishi, eds. Wood and cellulosic chemistry. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.nKamdem DP (1994) Fungal decay resistance of aspen blocks treated with heartwood extracts. Forest Prod J 44(1):30-32.nLaks PE, Mckaig PA, Hemingway RW (1988) Flavonoid biocides: Wood preservatives based on condensed tannins. Holzforschung 42(5):299-306.nLomelí MG, Fuentes FJ (1997) Biodeterioration of alder wood and wood decay fungi avocado Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quél., Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burdsall and Poria monticola Murr. Page 60 in VI Congress National of Micology. Tapachula, Chiapas, México.nMalterud KE, Bremnes TE, Faegri A, Moe T, Sandanger EK, Anthonsen T, Henriksen LM (1985) Flavonoids from the wood of salix-caprea as inhibitors of wood-destroying fungi. J Nat Prod 48:559-563.nMamers H, McCarthy KJ (1998) Preparation and testing of diffusible metal chelate fungicides. Holzforschung 52(1):18-26.nMc Donald M, Mila I, Scalbert A (1996) Precipitation of metal ions by plant polyphenols: Optimal conditions and origin of precipitation. J Agric Food Chem 44(2):599-606.nPizzi A, Conradie WE, Jensen A (1986) Polyflavonoid tannins—A main cause of soft-rot failure in CCA-treated timber. Wood Sci Technol 20(1):71-81.nRatajczak I, Hoffmann SK, Goslar J, Mazela B (2008) Fixation of copper(II)-protein formulation in wood: Part 1. Influence of tannic acid on fixation of copper in wood. Holzforschung 62(3):294-299.nRobinson B, Greven M, Green S, Sivakumaran S, Davidson P, Clothier (2006) Leaching of copper, chromium and arsenic from treated vineyard posts in Marlboroungh, New Zealand. Sci Total Environ 364:113-123.nScalbert A (1991) Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochemistry 30(12):3875-3883.nScalbert A, Cahill D, Dirol D, Navarrete MA, De Troya MT, Van Leemput M (1998) A tannin/copper preservation treatment for wood. Holzforschung 52(2):133-138.nSjöstrom E (1993) Wood chemistry, Second edition: Fundamentals and applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.nSmith AL, Campbell CL, Diwakar MP, Hanover JW, Miller RO (1989) Extracts from black locust as wood preservatives: A comparison of the methanol extract with pentachlorophenol and chromated copper arsenate. Holzforschung 43(6):293-296.nStevanovic T, Cooper PA, Ung YT (2001) Chromated copper arsenate preservative treatment of North American hardwood. Holzforschung 55(1):7-12.nStilwell DE, Gorny KD (1997) Contamination of soil with copper, chromium, and arsenic under decks built from pressure treated wood. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 58(1):22-29.nTamolang FN (1976) The utilization of coconut trunk and other parts in the Philippines. National Science Development Board Technology Journal 1(2):36-48.nThévenon MF, Tondi G, Pizzi A (2010) Environmentally friendly wood preservative system based on polymerized tannin resin-boric acid for outdoor applications. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol 12(3):253-257.nTownsend T, Solo-Gabriele H, Tolaymat T, Stook K, Hosein N (2003) Chromium, copper, and arsenic concentrations in soil underneath CCA-treated wood structures. Soil and Sediment Contamination 12(6): 779-798.nWang SC, Hart J (1983) Heartwood extractives of Maclura pomifera and their role in decay resistance. Wood Fiber Sci 15(4):290-301.nYamaguchi H, Yoshino K (2001) Influence of tannin-copper complexes as preservatives for wood on mechanism of decomposition by brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis palustris. Holzforschung 55(5):464-470.nZhang J and Kamdem DP (2000) Interaction of copper-amine with Southern pine: retention and migration. Wood Fiber Sci 32(3):332-339.n






Research Contributions