Surface and Subsurface Characteristics Related to Abrasive-Planing Conditions


  • Lidija Murmanis
  • Bryan H. River
  • Harold A. Stewart


Abrasive planing, grit size, feed speed, depth of cut, surface quality, Douglas-fir, hard maple, yellow poplar


The goal of this study was to examine the quality of abrasively planed wood surfaces when variable grit sizes, feed speeds, and depths of cut are used. Our observations show that grit size and wood structure and density seem to have larger effects on the depth and type of damage than feed speed and depth of cut. Coarser grit sizes seem to cause greater damage than finer grit sizes.

Surface damage in Douglas-fir occurs at every grit size, feed rate, and depth of cut combination; the earlywood shows more severe damage than the latewood. Surface damage is more variable in hard maple and yellow-poplar than in Douglas-fir. This variability may be due to different cell types present at the surface and the angle of intersection between the surface and the rays. Similar machining conditions do not always have similar effects on the surface quality even in the same wood species. Other factors, such as moisture content, between and within species density variations or belt conditions, might also contribute to the surface quality variability, but these were not explored.


Jokerst, R. W., and H. A. Stewart. 1976. Knife- versus abrasive-planed wood: Quality of adhesive bonds. Wood Fiber 8(2):107-1 13.nMarra, G. G. 1943. An analysis of the factors responsible for raised grain in the wood of oak, following sanding and staining. Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs. 65:177-185.nMurmanis, L., B. H. River, and H. A. Stewart. 1983. Microscopy of abrasive-planed and knife-planed surfaces in wood-adhesive bonds. Wood Fiber Sci. 15(2):102-115.nRiver, B. H., and V. P. Miniutti. 1975. Surface damage before gluing-Weak joints. Wood and Wood Products. July.nRiver, B. H., L. Murmanis, and H. A. Stewart. 1981. Effect of abrasive-planing stock removal rate on adhesive-bonded joint performance. Proc. Wood Adhesives-Research, Application, and Needs, symposium sponsored by the Forest Products Laboratory and Washington State University, held at Madison, WI, Sept. 23-25, 1980.nStewart, H. A. 1976. Preliminary belt life data for abrasive planing of ponderosa pine. Res. Note NC-211, North Central Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, USDA.nStewart, H. A. 1978. Effects of stock removal rates on belt loading for abrasive planing hardwoods. Res. Note NC-240, North Central Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, USDA.nStewart, H. A. and J. B. Crist. 1982. SEM examination of wood for damage after abrasive and knife planing. Wood Sci. 14(3):106-109.n






Research Contributions