Chemical Compositions of Five 3-Year-Old Hardwood Trees
Keywords:Cellulose, juvenile hardwoods, lignin, pentosan, plantations
AbstractContents of lignin, pentosan, holocellulose, and alpha-cellulose were determined on 3-year-old trees of autumn olive, black alder, black locust, eastern cottonwood, and sycamore. These plantations were established on marginal agricultural land in the Midwestern United States that was not suitable for food production. Test results indicated that chemical properties did vary among species, planting sites, spacing, and tree portion. Trees grown on upland sites gave significantly higher values for lignin, pentosan, and holocellulose content. The narrowly spaced trees gave higher values for pentosan content. The widely spaced trees gave higher values for lignin, holocellulose, and alpha-cellulose content. The mixture tree portion contained higher amounts of lignin. The wood portion contained more pentosan, holocellulose, and alpha-cellulose. Autumn olive had the highest lignin content. Sycamore had more pentosan and holocellulose. Black locust had the highest alpha-cellulose content. The results indicated that the five 3-year-old deciduous species examined could serve as a raw material for the rayon and polymer industries, as well as for liquid fuel.
American Society For Testing and Materials. 1982. Wood and adhesives, Part 22. ASTM, Philadelphia, PA.nBlankenhorn, P. R., T. W. Bowersox, C. H. Strauss, K. R. Kessler, L. R. Stover, and M. L. DiCola. 1992. Chemical composition of second rotation populus hybrids. NE-388. Wood Fiber Sci. 24(3):280-286.nBrown, H. P., A. J. Panshin, and C. C. Forsaith. 1952. Textbook of wood technology, vol. 2. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, NY.nChow, P., and E. B. Lucas. 1988. Fuel characteristics of selected four-year-old trees in Nigeria. Wood Fiber 20(4):431-437.nChow, P., and G. L. Rolfe. 1989. Carbon and hydroge content of short-rotation biomass of five hardwood species. Wood Fiber 21(1):30-36.nChow, P., G. L. Rolfe and W. K. Motter. 1987. Site, spacing, tree portion, and species influence ash and extractives content of five juvenile hardwoods. Pages 247-253 in Proceedings, 6th Central Hardwood Forest Conference.nChow, P., and G. L. Rolfe. 1989. Carbon and hydroge content of short-rotation biomass of five hardwood species. Wood Fiber 21(1):30-36.nChow, P., G. L. Rolfe, T. A. White, and C. S. Lee. 1980. Energy values of juvenile sycamore trees. Illinois Res. 22(4): 12-13.nChum, H. L. and H. J. Power. 1992. Opportunities for the cost-effective production of biobased materials. In Emerging technologies for materials and chemicals from biomass. ACS Symposium Series 476:28-41. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.nGoldstein, I. S. 1981. Organic chemicals from biomass. CRG Press, Boca Raton, FL. 310 pp.nGoldstein, I. S. 1992. Chemicals and fuels from biomass. In Emerging technologies for materials and chemicals from biomass. ACS Symposium Series 476:332-338. Americal Chemical Society, Washington, DC.nLee, C. S. 1981. The chemical and physical properties of two-year short-rotation deciduous species. Master's thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.nNarayar, R. 1992. Biomass resources for materials, chemicals, and fuels. ACS Symposium Series 476:1-10. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.nRowell, R. M., ed. 1992. Opportunities for lignocellusoic materials and composites. In Emerging technologies for materials and chemicals from biomass. ACS Symposium Series 476:12-27. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.nSAS For Linear Models. 1992. A guide to the ANOVA and GLM procedures. Version 6, 4th ed. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.nStrauss, C. H., P. R. Blankenhorn, T. W. Bowersox, and S. C. Grado. 1988. A cost analysis of alternate biomass supply system. Forest Prod. J. 38(1):47-51.nTechnical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry. 1992. TAPPI Test Methods, TAPPI Press, Atlanta, GA.nTimell, T. E. 1957. Carbohydrate composition of ten North American species of wood. TAPPI 40(30):568.nWise, L. E., and E. C. Jahn. 1952. Wood chemistry. Reinhold, New York, NY. 1264 pp.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.