The Properties of The Wood-Polystyrene Interphase Determined by Inverse Gas Chromatography
Keywords:Inverse gas chromatography, wood, plastic, polystyrene, interphase, interface, composite
AbstractThe properties of the interphase in wood-polymer composites are important determinants of the properties of the final composite. This study used inverse gas chromatography (IGC) to measure interphasal properties of composites of polystyrene and two types of wood fiber fillers and an inorganic substrate (CW) with varying amounts of surface coverage of polystyrene. Glass transition temperatures, thermodynamic parameters, and the London component of the surface free energy (YsL) were deter mined. Values for YsL became constant at higher coverages, allowing the thickness of the interphase to be estimated.
Bolvari, A. E., T. C. Ward, P. A. Koning, and D. P. Sheehy. 1989. Experimental techniques for inverse gas chromatography. Pages 12-19 in D. R. Lloyd, T. C. Ward, and H. P. Schreiber, eds. Inverse gas chromatography. ACS Symposium Series No. 391, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.nBraun, J. B., and J. E. Guillet. 1975. Studies of polystyrene in the region of the glass transition temperature by inverse gas chromotography. Macromolecules 8(6):882-888.nBraun, J. B., and J. E. Guillet. 1976. Study of polymers by inverse gas chromatography. Adv. Polym. Sci. 21:107-145.nConder, J. R., and C. L. Young. 1979. Physicochemical measurement by gas chromatography. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.nDemertzis, P. G., and M. G. Kontominas. 1989. Thermodynamic study of water sorption and water vapor diffusion in poly(vinylidene chloride) copolymers. Pages 77-86 in D. R. Lloyd, T. C. Ward, and H. P. Schreiber, eds. Inverse gas chromatography. ACS Symposium Series No. 391, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.nDorris, G. M., and D. G. Gray. 1980. Adsorption of n-alkanes at zero surface coverage on celluose paper and wood fibers. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 77(2):353-362.nDorris, G. M., and D. G. Gray. 1981. Adsorption of hydrocarbons on silica-supported water surfaces. J. Phys. Chem. 85: 3628.nHon, D. N.-S., and W. Y. Chao. 1993. Composites from benzylated wood and polystyrenes: Their processability and viscoelastic properties. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 50:7-11.nKamden, D. P., and B. Reidl. 1991. IGC characterization of PMMA grafted onto CTMP fiber. J. Wood Chem. Technol. 11(1):57-91.nKishi, H., M. Yoshioka, A. Yamanoi, and N. Shiraishi. 1988. Composites of wood and polypropylenes I. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 34(2):133-139.nLiang, B-H., Mott, S. M. Shaler, and G. T. Caneba. 1994. Properties of transfer-molded wood-fiber/polystyrene composites. Wood Fiber Sci. 26(3):382-389.nLipatov, Yu. S. 1967. Physical chemistry of filled polymers. International Polymer Science and Technology Monograph #2, Rubber and Plastics Research Association of Great Britain, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorks, England.nLipatov, Yu. S., and A. E. Nesterov. 1975. The influence of thickness of polymeric stationary phase on its properties determined by gas chromatography. Macromolecules 8(6):889-894.nMaldas, L., and B. V. Kokta. 1991. Influence of maleic anhydride as a coupling agent on the performance of wood fiber-polystyrene composites. Polym. Eng. Sci. 31(18):1351-1357.nMaldas, L., B. V. Kokta, and C. Daneault. 1989. Influence of coupling agents and treatments on the mechanical properties of cellulose fiber-polystyrene composites. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 37:751-775.nMohlin, U-B., and D. G. Gray. 1974. Gas chromatography on polymer surfaces: adsorption on cellules J. Colloid Interface Sci. 47(3):747-754.nRowell, R. M., H. Spelter, R. A. Arola, P. Davis, T. Friberg, R. W. Hemingway, T. Rials, D. Luneke, R. Narayan, J. Simonsen, and D. White. 1993. Opportunities for composites from recycled wastewoodbased resources: A problem analysis and research plan. Forest Prod. J. 43(1):55-63.nSanadi, A. R., R. A. Young, C. Clemons, and R. M. Rowell. 1994. Recycled newspaper fibers as reinforcing fillers in thermoplastics: Part I—Analysis of tensile and impact properties in polypropylene. J. Reirf. Plastics Compos. 13:54-67.nSchreiber, H. P., and D. R. Lloyd. 1989. Overview of inverse gas chromatography. Pages 1-10 in D. R. Lloyd, T. C. Ward, and H. P. Schreiber, eds. Inverse gas chramatography. ACS Symposium Series No. 391, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.nSmidsrod, O., and J. E. Guillet. 1969. Study of polymer-solute interactions by gas chromatography. Macromolecules 2:272-275.nTakase, S., and N. Shiraishi. 1989. Studies on composites from wood and polypropylene, II. J. Appl. Folym. Sci. 37:645-659.nWoodhams, R. T., G. Thomas, and D. K. Rodgers. 1984. Wood fibers as reinforcing fillers for polyolefins. Polym. Eng. Sci. 24(15): 1166-1171.nYam, K., B. Gogot, C. Lai, and S. Selke. 1990. Composites from compounding wood fibers with recycled high density polyethylene. Polym. Eng. Sci. 30(11):693-699.nYoungquist, J. A. 1995. The marriage of wood and nonwood materials. Forest Prod. J. 45(10):25-30.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.