The Effect Of High Pressure Hydrogenation On Southern Pine Bark Chemistry
Keywords:Hydrogenation, bark chemistry, hydrogenolysis, phenolic acids
AbstractWhole bark, extracted bark, and the extracted bark phenolic acids were hydrogenated using a Raney-nickel catalyst and a catalyst to acceptor weight ratio of 0.75:1. The phenolic acids were more resistant, requiring a 1:1 weight ratio. Primary reaction products of bark were water-soluble compounds that appeared to be lower alcohols, substituted alcohols, and diols. Reaction products of the bark phenolic acids were not characterized. More work is required to separate and identify with certainty the constituents of the water-soluble fraction before the significance of this research can be evaluated. None of the products found appear to be formed in sufficient quantity or have chemical structures that would make the process economically feasible. Formation of a strong bark-catalyst complex made catalyst recovery difficult.
Dal Nogare, S. 1953. Chromatographic separation of glycols and monohydric alcohols. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 54(12):4116-4117.nFieser, L. F., and Mary Fieser. 1967. Reagents for organic synthesis. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY. 800 pp.nGedney, D. R. 1971. Residues from primary manufacturing. Forest Ind. 98(12):24-25.nHall, J. A. 1971. Bark—old and new in Converting bark into opportunities. Proceedings of a conference held at Oregon State University. March 8-9. Compiled by A. C. VanVliet. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 109 pp.nHarris, E. E., J. D'Ianni, and H. B. Adkins. 1938. Reaction of hardwood lignin with hydrogen. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 60(6): 1467-1470.nHrutfiord, B. F. 1971. Reduction and hydrogenolysis. Pages 487-509 in K. V. Sarkanen and C. H. Ludwig, eds. Lignins, occurrence, formation, structure and reactions. Wiley-Interscience, NY.nMartin, R. E. 1969. Characteristics of southern pine barks. Forest Prod. J. 19(8):23-30.nMcGinnis, G. D., and S. Parikh. 1975. The chemical constituents of loblolly pine bark. Wood Science 7(4):295-297.nMonzingo, R. 1955. Catalyst, Raney-nickel W-2. Pages 181-183 in E. C. Horning, ed. Organic synthesis collective, vol. 3. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY.nNickles, W. C., and J. W. Rowe. 1962. Chemistry of western pine bark. Forest Prod. J. 12(8):374-376.nPepper, J. M., and D. C. Hagerman. 1954. The isolation and oxidation of aspen lignin. Canadian J. Chem. 32:614-627.nPepper, J. M., and H. Hibbert. 1948. Studies on lignin and related compounds LXXXVII. High pressure hydrogenation of maple wood. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 70(1):67-71.nPepper, J. M., and W. Steck. 1963. The effect of time and temperature on the hydrogenation of aspen lignin. Canadian J. Chem. 41:2867-2875.nRoss, W. D. 1966. Bibliography of bark. Bibliographical Series 6. Forest Research Laboratory. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 56 pp.nSarles, R. 1973. Using and marketing bark residues. Forest Prod. J. 23(8):10-14.nWekell, J. C., C. R. Houle, and D. C. Malins. 1964. A method for the isolation of mono- and di-hydric alcohols from complex mixtures. J. Chromatography 14:529-531.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.