Tensile Properties of Four Types of Individual Cellulosic Fibers
Keywords:Kenaf, bamboo, ramie, softwood, cellulosic fibers, microtensile, mechanical properties
AbstractThis research is intended to expand information on fiber characteristics for better understanding their complexity and potential in industrial use. Tensile properties of four types of individual cellulosic fibers, bamboo, kenaf, Chinese fir, and ramie, were measured by a custom-designed microtensile tester. Load-displacement curves for most individual fibers were found to be linear until failure. Average values of at least 30 individual fibers of bamboo, kenaf, Chinese fir, and ramie were 1685, 983, 908, and 1001 MPa for tensile strength; 26, 19, 14, and 11 GPa for tensile modulus; and 7.1, 5.4, 8.3, and 8.9% for elongation at break, respectively. Cross-sectional areas of cell walls measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy were 117, 140, 217, and 337 μm2, respectively, an inverse relation with tensile modulus. Among the fibers, bamboo had the greatest tensile strength and modulus, whereas the other three did not have any statistical difference. Ramie had the largest elongation at break and the lowest modulus. Elongation at break of kenaf was significantly smaller than that of the other fibers. Fracture morphologies and load-displacement curves indicated these fibers were brittle materials. Tensile data can be used to screen fiber applications.
Adekunle K, Akesson D, Skrifvars M (2010) Biobased composites prepared by compression molding with a novel thermoset resin from soybean oil and a natural-fiber reinforcement. J Appl Polym Sci 116(3):1759-1765.nAmada S, Ichikawa Y, Munekata T, Nagase Y, Shimizu H (1997) Fiber texture and mechanical graded structure of bamboo. Compos Part B-Eng 28(1-2):13-20.nBaley C (2002) Analysis of the flax fibres tensile behaviour and analysis of the tensile stiffness increase. Compos Part A-Appl S 33(7):939-948.nBurgert I, Fruhmann K, Keckes J, Fratzl P, Stanzl-Tschegg SE (2003) Microtensile testing of wood fibers combined with video extensometry for efficient strain detection. Holzforschung 57(6):661-664.nBurgert I, Gierlinger N, Zimmermann T (2005) Properties of chemically and mechanically isolated fibres of spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.). Part 1: Structural and chemical characterisation. Holzforschung 59(2): 240-246.nBurgert I, Keckes J, Fruhmann K, Fratzl P, Tschegg SE (2002) A comparison of two techniques for wood fibre isolation evaluation by tensile tests on single fibres with different microfibril angle. Plant Biol 4(1):9-12.nChen H, Cheng H, Wang G (2011) Properties of single bamboo fibers isolated by different chemical methods. Wood Fiber Sci 43(2):1-10.nDefoirdt N, Biswas S, De Vriese L, Tran LQN, Van Acker J, Ahsan Q, Gorbatikh L, Van Vuure A, Verpoest I (2010) Assessment of the tensile properties of coir, bamboo and jute fibre. Compos Part A-Appl S 41(5):588-595.nEdeerozey AMM, Akil HM, Azhar AB, Ariffin MZ (2007) Chemical modification of kenaf fibers. Mater Lett 61(10):2023-2025.nEder M, Jungnikl K, Burgert I (2009) A close-up view of wood structure and properties across a growth ring of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L] Karst.). Trees-Struct Funct 23(1):79-84.nEichhorn SJ, Baillie CA, Zafeiropoulos N, Mwaikambo LY, Ansell MP, Dufresne A, Entwistle KM, Herrera-Franco PJ, Escamilla GC, Groom L, Hughes M, Hill C, Rials TG, Wild PM (2001) Review: Current international research into cellulosic fibres and composites. J Mater Sci 36(9):2107-2131.nGoda K, Sreekala MS, Gomes A, Kaji T, Ohgi J (2006) Improvement of plant based natural fibers for toughening green composites—Effect of load application during mercerization of ramie fibers. Compos Part A-Appl S 37(12):2213-2220.nGroom L, Mott L, Shaler S (2002) Mechanical properties of individual southern pine fibers. Part I. Determination and variability of stress-strain curves with respect to tree height and juvenility. Wood Fiber Sci 34(1):14-27.nJang HF, Robertson AG, Seth RS (1992) Transverse dimensions of wood pulp fibers by confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis. J Mater Sci 27(23):6391-6400.nJi XL, Jing JK, Jiang W, Jiang BZ (2002) Tensile modulus of polymer nanocomposites. Polym Eng Sci 42(5):983-993.nJohn MJ, Thomas S (2008) Biofibres and biocomposites. Carbohydr Polym 71(3):343-364.nKim JT, Netravali AN (2010a) Mechanical, thermal, and interfacial properties of green composites with ramie fiber and soy resins. J Agric Food Chem 58(9):5400-5407.nKim JT, Netravali AN (2010b) Mercerization of sisal fibers: Effect of tension on mechanical properties of sisal fiber and fiber-reinforced composites. Compos Part A-Appl S 41(9):1245-1252.nLodha P, Netravali AN (2002) Characterization of interfacial and mechanical properties of green composites with soy protein isolate and ramie fiber. J Mater Sci 37(17):3657-3665.nMossello AA, Harun J, Tahir PM, Resalati H, Ibrahim R, Fallah Shamsi SR, Mohmamed AZ (2010) A Review of literatures related of using kenaf for pulp production (beating, fractionation, and recycled fiber). Modern Applied Science 4(9):21.nMott L, Groom L, Shaler S (2002) Mechanical properties of individual southern pine fibers. Part II. Comparison of earlywood and latewood fibers with respect to tree height and juvenility. Wood Fiber Sci 34(2):221-237.nMott L, Shaler SM, Groom LH, Liang BH (1995) The tensile testing of individual wood fibers using environmental scanning electron microscopy and video image analysis. Tappi J 78(5):143-148.nMunawar S, Umemura K, Tanaka F, Kawai S (2008) Effects of alkali, mild steam, and chitosan treatments on the properties of pineapple, ramie, and sansevieria fiber bundles. J Wood Sci 54(1):28-35.nMunawar SS, Umemura K, Kawai S (2007) Characterization of the morphological, physical, and mechanical properties of seven nonwood plant fiber bundles. J Wood Sci 53(2):108-113.nNam S, Netravali AN (2006) Green composites. I. Physical properties of ramie fibers for environment-friendly green composites. Fiber Polym 7(4):372-379.nNogata F, Takahashi H (1995) Intelligent functionally graded material: Bamboo. Compos Eng 5(7):743-751.nOchi S (2008) Mechanical properties of kenaf fibers and kenaf/PLA composites. Mech Mater 40(4-5):446-452.nOmolodun OO, Cutter BE, Krause GF, McGinnes J (1991) Wood quality in Hildegardia barteri (Mast.) Kossernúan African tropical pioneer species. Wood Fiber Sci 23(3):419-435.nPage DH, El-Hosseiny F (1983) The mechanical properties of single wood pulp fibres: Part VI. Fibril angle and the shape of the stress-strain curve. J Pulp Paper Sci 9(1-2):99-100.nRao KMM, Rao KM (2007) Extraction and tensile properties of natural fibers: Vakka, date and bamboo. Compos Struct 77(3):288-295.nReddy N, Yang Y (2007) Natural cellulose fibers from switchgrass with tensile properties similar to cotton and linen. Biotechnol Bioeng 97(5):1021-1027.nShao ZP, Fang CH, Huang SX, Tian GL (2010) Tensile properties of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) and its components with respect to its fiber-reinforced composite structure. Wood Sci Technol 44(4):655-666.nShi SQ, Lee S, Horstemeyer M (2007) Natural fiber retting and inorganic nanoparticle impregnation treatment for natural fiber/polymer composites. Proc American Society for Composite, Sept.17-19, 2007, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.nSymington MC, Banks WM, West OD, Pethrick RA (2009) Tensile testing of cellulose based natural fibers for structural composite applications. J Composite Mater 43(9):1083-1108.nTchepel M, Provan JW, Nishida A, Biggs C (2006) A procedure for measuring the flexibility of single wood-pulp fibres. Mech Compos Mater 42(1):83-92.nvan Wyk JPH (2001) Biotechnology and the utilization of biowaste as a resource for bioproduct development. Trends Biotechnol 19(5):172-177.nWang G, Shi SQ, Yu Y, Wang J, Cao S, Cheng H (2011) A micro-tension test method for measuring tensile properties of individual cellulosic fibers. Wood Fiber Sci 43(3):251-261.nXue Y, Du Y, Elder S, Wang K, Zhang J (2009) Temperature and loading rate effects on tensile properties of kenaf bast fiber bundles and composites. Compos, Part B Eng 40(3):189-196.nYu Y, Tian GL, Wang HK, Fei BH, Wang G (2011) Mechanical characterization of single bamboo fibers with nanoindentation and microtensile technique. Holzforschung 65(1):113-119.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.