Mechanical Properties of Wood-Polypropylene Composites with Industrial Wood Particles of Different Sizes


  • Cezary Gozdecki
  • Arnold Wilczyński
  • Marek Kociszewski
  • Jolanta Tomaszewska
  • Stanislaw Zajchowski


Industrial wood particle, injection, mechanical properties, particle size, polypropylene, wood-plastic composite


Industrial wood particles used for manufacturing three-layer particleboards were used to prepare wood-polypropylene composites by an injection molding process. The effect of particle size (0.25-0.5, 0.5-1, 1-2, and 2-4 mm) on mechanical properties of composites was investigated. Additionally, the effect of cross-section size of composite pieces (4 x 10, 6 x 15, and 8 x 20 mm2) was studied. Both particle size and specimen cross-section area significantly influenced these properties. Tensile and mechanical properties as well as impact strength increased with increasing particle size from 0.25-2 mm and then slightly decreased. Flexural and impact strength decreased with increasing cross-section size, whereas variation of tensile modulus and strength and of flexural modulus with increasing cross-section size was different for composites with different particle sizes.


Bledzki AK, Faruk O (2003) Wood fibre reinforced poly-propylene composites: Effect of fibre geometry and coupling agent on physico-mechanical properties. Appl Compos Mater 10(6):365-379.nBouafif H, Koubaa A, Perre P, Cloutier A (2009) Effects of fiber characteristics on the physical and mechanical properties of wood plastic composites. Compos Part A-Appl S 40(12):1975-1981.nChen HC, Chen TY, Hsu CH (2006) Effects of wood particle size and mixing ratios of HDPE on the properties of the composites. Holz Roh Werkst 64(3):172-177.nCui Y, Lee S, Noruziaan B, Cheung M, Tao J (2008) Fabrication and interfacial modification of wood/recycled plastic composite materials. Compos Part A-Appl S 39 (4):655-661.nEN ISO (1996) 527-1. Plastics—Determination of tensile properties—Part 1: General principles. European Committee for Standardization. CEN, Bruxelles, Belgium.nEN ISO (2000) 179-1. Plastics—Determination of Charpy impact properties—Part 1: Non-instrumented impact test. European Committee for Standardization. CEN, Bruxelles, Belgium.nEN ISO (2005) 178. Plastics—Determination of flexural properties. European Committee for Standardization. CEN, Bruxelles, Belgium.nGozdecki C, Kociszewski M, Zajchowski S (2006) Use of particles from the particleboard manufacturing for the polypropylene filling. Annals of Warsaw Agricultural University-SGGW Forestry and Wood Technology 58:326-329.nKhalil HPSA, Shahnaz SBS, Ratnam MM, Ahmad F, Fuaad NAN (2006) Recycle polypropylene (RPP) wood saw dust (WSD) composites—Part 1: The effect of different filler size and filler loading on mechanical and water absorption properties. J Reinf Plast Comp 25(12):1291-1303.nKumari R, Ito H, Takatani M, Uchiyama M, Okamoto T (2007) Fundamental studies on wood/cellulose-plastic composites: Effects of composition and cellulose dimension on the properties of cellulose/PP composite. J Wood Sci 53(6):470-480.nLee BJ, McDonald AG, James B (2001) Influence of fiber length on the mechanical properties of wood-fiber/polypropylene prepreg sheets. Mater Res Innov 4 (2-3):97-103.nLiew KC, Jalaluddin H, Paridah MT, Mohd Nor MY, Khairul Zaman MD (2000) Properties of rubberwood fibrepolypropylene composites blended at different fibre contents and fibre size fractions. J Trop For Prod 6(1):21-27.nMigneault S, Koubaa A, Erchiqui F, Chaala A, Englund K, Krause C, Wolcott M (2008) Effect of fiber length on processing and properties of extruded wood-fiber/HDPE composites. J Appl Polym Sci 110(2):1085-1092.nPan MZ, Zhou DG, Bousmina M, Zhang SY (2009) Effects of wheat straw fiber content and characteristics, and coupling agent concentration on the mechanical properties of wheat straw fiber-polypropylene composites. J Appl Polym Sci 113(2):1000-1007.nSalemane MG, Luyt AS (2006) Thermal and mechanical properties of polypropylene-wood powder composites. J Appl Polym Sci 100(5):4173-4180.nStark NM (1999) Wood fiber derived from scrap pallets used in polypropylene composites. Forest Prod J 49(6):39-46.nStark NM, Berger MJ (1997) Effect of particle size on properties of wood-flour reinforced polypropylene composites. Pages 134-143 in Proc Fourth International Conference of Wood Fiber-Plastic Composites. May 12-14, 1997. Portland, Madison, WI.nStark NM, Rowlands RE (2003) Effects of wood fiber characteristics on mechanical properties of wood/polypropylene composites. Wood Fiber Sci 35(2):167-174.nTakatani M, Ito H, Ohsugi S, Kitayama T, Saegusa M, Kawai S, Okamoto T (2000) Effect of lignocellulosic materials on the properties of thermoplastic polymer/wood composites. Holzforschung 54(2):197-200.nZaini MJ, Fuad MYA, Ismail Z, Mansor MS, Mustafah J (1996) The effect of filler content and size on the mechanical properties of polypropylene/oil palm wood flour composites. Polym Int 40(1):51-55.n






Research Contributions