Interclonal, Intraclonal and Within-Tree Variation in Wood Density of Poplar Hybrid Clones
Keywords:Wood density, Populus x euramericana, intraclonal variation, interclonal variation, hybrid variation
AbstractTwenty-eight nine-year-old trees from ten clones of the hybrid Populus x euramericana at one site in south-central Quebec were sampled to determine the pattern of wood density variation within stems, within clones, and between clones. Sample disks were taken from each tree to examine the variation at four heights, whereas an increment core of 10 mm in diameter was extracted at breast height. Clones, trees, and heights have a highly significant effect on wood density, and the individual-tree broad-sense heritability is 0.64. The wood density of this hybrid tends to be high at the bottom of the tree, decreases to a minimum at mid-height, then increases again near the top of the merchantable stem. There is also a highly significant correlation between the weighted average wood density of the merchantable stem and the wood density of the increment core taken at breast height. Finally, wood density decreases as growth rate increases. However, the correlation is weak (r = -0.49) but statistically significant.
Cech, M. Y., R. W. Kennedy, and J. H. G. Smith. 1960. Variation in some wood quality attributes of one-year old black cottonwood. Tappi 43(10):857-859.nEinspahr, D. W., J. P. van Buijtenen, and J. R. Peckham. 1963. Natural variation and heritability in triploid aspen. Silv. Genet. 12(2):51-58.nFarmer, R. E., Jr. 1970a. Variation and inheritance of eastern cottonwood growth and wood properties under two soil moisture regimes. Silv. Genet. 19(1):5-8.nFarmer, R. E., Jr. 1970b. Genetic variation among open-pollinated progeny of eastern cottonwood. Silv. Genet. 19(5/6):149-151.nFarmer, R. E., Jr., and J. R. Wilcox. 1966. Specific gravity variation in a lower Mississippi valley cottonwood population. Tappi 49(5):210-211.nFarmer, R. E., Jr., and J. R. Wilcox. 1968. Preliminary testing of eastern cottonwood clones. Theoret. Appl. Genetics 38:197-201.nGabriel, W. J. 1956. Preliminary report on clonal differences in the wood and phloem of Populus deltoides and P. trichocarpa. 3rd Northeastern Forest Tree Improvement Conference, Ithaca, New York. Pp. 33-34.nGoulet, M., and R. E. Hernández. 1991. Influence of moisture sorption on the strength of sugar maple wood in tangential tension. Wood Fiber Sci. 23(2):197-206.nHolt, D. H., and W. K. Murphey. 1978. Properties of hybrid poplar juvenile wood affected by silvicultural treatments. Wood Sci. 10(4):198-203.nIsebrands, J. 1972. The proportion of wood elements within eastern cottonwood. Wood Sci. 5(2):139-146.nJessome, A. P. 1977. Résistance et propriétés connexes des bois indigènes au Canada. Laboratoire des Produits Forestiers de l'Est, Ottawa. Rapport Technique de Foresterie 21. 37 pp.nJohnson, L. P. V. 1942. Studies on the relation of growth rate to wood quality in Populus hybrids. Can. J. Res. 20:28-40.nKeays, J. L., J. V. Hatton, G. R. Bailey, and R. W. Neilson. 1974. Present and future uses of Canadian poplars in fibre and wood products. Can. Western For. Prod. Lab., Inf. Report VP-X-120.nKeith, C. T. 1986. Defining wood quality—What's important? Pages 21-36 in Wood quality considerations in tree improvement programs. Proceedings of a workshop held in Quebec City, 1985.nKennedy, R. W. 1968. Anatomy and fundamental wood properties of poplar. Pages 149-168 in J. S. Maini and J. H. Cayford, eds. Growth and utilization of poplar in Canada. Can. Dep. For. Rural Dev., Publ. 1205. Ottawa.nKennedy, R. W., and J. H. G. Smith. 1959. The effect of some genetic and environmental factors on wood quality in poplar. Pulp Pap. Mag. Can. 59(2):37-38.nKeylwerth, R. 1954. Ein beitrag zur qualitativen Zuwachsanalyse. Holz Roh-Werkst. 12(3):77-83.nMaini, J. S., and J. H. Cayford, eds. 1968. Growth and utilization of poplar in Canada. Can. Dep. For. Rural Dev., Publ. 1205, Ottawa, 257 pp.nMurphey, W. K., T. W. Bowersox, and P. R. Blankenhorn. 1979. Selected wood properties of young Populus hybrids. Wood Sci. 11(4):263-267.nNepveu, G., R. Keller, and E. Tessier du Cross. 1978. Sélection juvénile pour la qualité du bois chez certains peupliers noirs. Annales des sciences forestières 35(1):69-92.nNepveu, G., Cl. Barneoud, H. Polge, and M. Aubert. 1985. Variabilité clonale des contraintes de croissance et de quelques autres propriétés du bois dans le genre Populus. Fiabilité de l'appréciation de la qualité du bois à l'aide de carottes de sondage. Annales AFOCEL. Pp. 337-357.nOkkonen, E. A., H. E. Wahlgren, and R. R. Maeglin. 1972. Relationships of specific gravity to tree height in commercially important species. Forest Prod. J. 22(7):37-41.nPaul, B. H. 1956. Specific gravity in Populus spp. and hybrids. USDA For. Serv., Tech. Bull. 1288. 97 pp.nPosey, C. E., F. E. Bridgewater, and J. A. Buxton. 1969. Natural variation in specific gravity, fiber length, and growth rate of eastern cottonwood in the southern great plains. Tappi 52(8):1508-1511.nVerville, A. 1981. Etude physico-mécanique de quelques espèces du genre Larix en plantation. M.Sc. thesis, Département d'Exploitation et Utilisation des Bois, Université Laval, Québec.nWalters, C. S., and G. Bruckmann. 1965. Variation in specific gravity of cottonwood: As affected by tree sex and stand location. J. For. 63(3):182-185.nYanchuk, A. D., B. P. Dancik, and M. M. Micko. 1983. Intraclonal variation in wood density of trembling aspen in Alberta. Wood Fiber Sci. 15(4):387-394.nYanchuk, A. D., B. P. Dancik, and M. M. Micko. 1984. Variation and heritability of wood density and fiber length of trembling aspen in Alberta, Canada. Silv. Genet. 33(1):11-16.nZobel, B. J. 1961. The inheritance of wood properties in conifers. Silv. Genet. 10(3):65-70.nZobel, B. J., and J. P. van Buijtenen. 1989. Wood variation. Its causes and control. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, London, Paris, Tokyo.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.