Anatomical Features Affecting Liquid Penetrability in Three Hardwood Species

Richard J. Thomas


Variation in liquid penetrability of hickory, sweetgum, and blackgum is related to differences in tyloses, gum depositions, encrustations, pit membrane structure, volume of the various cell types present, and types of cells connected by pits. In hickory, blockage of the intervessel pits, isolation of vessels from fibers, parenchyma, tyloses, and low vessel volume resulted in liquid flow along heartwood fibers. Tyloses and heavily incrusted pit membranes in both vessels and fibers of sweetgum heartwood effectively halt liquid flow. Blackgum heartwood is easily penetrated as it lacks tyloses and contains a relatively small amount of incrusting materials.


<i>Carya tomentosa</i>;<i>Nyssa sylvatica</i>;<i>Liquidambar styraciflua</i>;heart-wood;tyloses;pit membranes;liquid penetrability;encrustations;permeability

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