Some Physical Properties of Birch Carbonized in A Nitrogen Atmosphere
Keywords:<i>Betula</i> sp, heat treatment, shrinkage, dynamic elastic modulus, internal friction, thermal degradation
AbstractThe dynamic mechanical properties, mass loss, and shrinkage data of birch carbonized in a nitrogen atmosphere to different temperatures from 473 to 973 K have been investigated. The dynamic elastic modulus data decreased as the heat treatment temperatures approached 673 K. Major mass loss and shrinkage accompanied the decrease in the modulus data. Treatments at higher temperatures (> 673 K) produced substantially less additional mass loss and shrinkage but produced increased rigidity in the char. The internal friction behavior of the char was complex.
Beall, F. C., P. R. Blankenhorn, and G. R. Moore. 1974. Carbonized wood—physical properties and use as an SEM preparation. Wood Sci. 6(3):212-219.nBernier, G. A., and D. E. Kline. 1968. Dynamic mechanical behavior of birch compared with methyl methacrylate impregnated birch from 90 to 475 K. For. Prod. J. 18(4):79-82.nBlankenhorn, P. R. 1972. Dynamic mechanical behavior of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.). Ph.D. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.nBlankenhorn, P. R., G. M. Jenkins, and D. E. Kline. 1972. Dynamic mechanical properties and microstructure of some carbonized hardwoods. Wood Fiber 4(3):212-224.nBlankenhorn, P. R., D. E. Kline, and F. C. Beall. 1973. Dynamic mechanical behavior of carbonized black cherry wood (Prunus serotina Ehrh.). Carbon 11:603-611.nHarada, H. 1965. Ultrastructure of angiosperm vessels and ray parenchyma. Pages 235-249 in W. A. Côté, ed., Cellular ultrastructure of woody plants, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, N. Y.nJenkins, G. M., and K. Kawamura. 1971. Structure of glassy carbon. Nature 231:175-176.nKline, D. E. 1956. A recording apparatus for measuring the dynamic mechanical properties of polymers. J. Polymer Sci. 22:449-454.nKline, D. E., R. P. Kreahling, and P. R. Blankenhorn. 1972. Dynamic mechanical properties and structure of white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) wood. Pages 185-285 in Advances in Polymer Sci. Eng., Plenum Press, New York.nMcGinnes, E. A., Jr., S. A. Kandeel, and P. S. Szopa. 1971. Some structural changes observed in the transformation of wood into charcoal. Wood Fiber 3(2):77-83.nTaylor, R. E., and D. E. Kline. 1967. Internal friction and elastic modulus behavior of vitreous carbon from 4 K to 570 K. Carbon 5:607-612.nTaylor, R. E., D. E. Kline, and P. L. Walker, Jr. 1968. The dynamic mechanical behavior of graphites. Carbon 6:333-347.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.